Economic Complexity Rankings (ECI)

* Using exports data classified according the Harmonized System (HS92) with a depth of 4 Digits for countries with population of at least 1 million and exports of at least $1 billion, and products with world trade over 500 million.

The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product.

ECI and PCI values are estimated directly from matrices summarizing the geography of economic activity, and can be calculated on demand.

Formally, the complexity of location (ECI) is a function of the complexity of the activities present in it. Similarly, the complexity of an activity (PCI) is a function of the complexities of the locations where that activity is present.

For details about Relatedness and ECI see the methods section in the OEC Academy.

Observatory of Economic Complexity


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Want to keep up with research on Economic Complexity?

The OEC library has a curated list of hundreds of papers organized by topics and geography.

The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) is a measure of economic capacity that is predictive of income, economic growth, income inequality & greehouse gas emissions. Technically, ECI is a principal component of a matrix connecting similar locations.

Learn more about ECI in the OEC Academy.

Did you know the OEC has been around since 2011?

Born as a research project at MIT, today the OEC is a professional tool serving data to millions of users every year.

Learn about the history of the OEC in the about section.