Flag Canada

2019
Economic
Complexity
: 1.06, Rank 30 of 157

2019
Product
Exports | Imports
: $431B | $443B, 11 of 225 |  12 of 225

2019
Per Capita Product
Exports | Imports
: $11.5k | $11.8k, 51 of 219 |  22 of 219

2018
Service
Exports | Imports
: $82.9B | $109B, 11 of 88 | 9 of 88

Overview: In 2019 Canada was the number 10 economy in the world in terms of GDP (current US$), the number 11 in total exports, the number 12 in total imports, the number 20 economy in terms of GDP per capita (current US$) and the number 30 most complex economy according to the Economic Complexity Index (ECI)

Exports: The top exports of Canada are Crude Petroleum ($67.8B), Cars ($40.9B), Gold ($14.6B), Refined Petroleum ($12.3B), and Vehicle Parts ($10.8B), exporting mostly to United States ($314B), China ($18.5B), United Kingdom ($13.8B), Japan ($9.92B), and Mexico ($6.18B).

In 2019, Canada was the world's biggest exporter of Sawn Wood ($6.35B), Raw Aluminium ($5.45B), Potassic Fertilizers ($5.27B), Rapeseed ($3.23B), and Rapeseed Oil ($2.6B)

Imports: The top imports of Canada are Cars ($27.9B), Vehicle Parts ($20.2B), Delivery Trucks ($15.3B), Crude Petroleum ($13.5B), and Refined Petroleum ($13B), importing mostly from United States ($252B), China ($47.2B), Mexico ($21.3B), Germany ($12.7B), and Japan ($10.2B).

In 2019, Canada was the world's biggest importer of Aqueous Paints ($522M), Cabbages ($472M), Lettuce ($451M), Iron Railway Products ($305M), Asphalt ($273M)

Location: Canada borders United States by land and Greenland and Saint Pierre and Miquelon by sea.

Latest Trends (November, 2020)

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Overview: In November 2020 Canada exported C$43B and imported C$48.2B, resulting in a negative trade balance of C$5.17B. Between November 2019 and November 2020 the exports of Canada have decreased by C$-1.12B (-2.55%) from C$44.2B to C$43B, while imports increased by C$232M (0.48%) from C$48B to C$48.2B.

Trade: In November 2020, the top exports of Canada were Crude Petroleum (C$5.16B), Cars (C$4.34B), Gold (C$2.61B), Vehicle Parts (C$1.14B), and Sawn Wood (C$997M). In November 2020 the top imports of Canada were Cars (C$2.84B), Vehicle Parts (C$1.98B), Telephones (C$1.65B), Commodities not elsewhere specified (C$1.51B), and Computers (C$1.26B).

Origins: In November 2020 the exports of Canada were mainly from Ontario (C$18B), Alberta (C$7.7B), Quebec (C$7.44B), British Columbia (C$3.54B), and Saskatchewan (C$2.72B), while imports destinations were mainly Ontario (C$31B), Quebec (C$6.52B), British Columbia (C$4.71B), Alberta (C$1.95B), and Manitoba (C$1.66B).

Destinations: In November 2020, Canada exported mostly to United States (C$30.2B), United Kingdom (C$2.69B), China (C$2.02B), Japan (C$1.15B), and Mexico (C$630M), and imported mostly from United States (C$22.4B), China (C$7.66B), Mexico (C$2.92B), Germany (C$1.42B), and Japan (C$1.27B).

Growth: In November 2020, the decrease in Canada's year-by-year exports was explained primarily by an decrease in exports to United States (C$-1.9B or -5.93%), Hong Kong (C$-327M or -73.3%), and Saudi Arabia (C$-271M or -90%), and product exports decrease in Crude Petroleum (C$-1.41B or -21.4%), Refined Petroleum (C$-642M or -47.2%), and Delivery Trucks (C$-293M or -67.4%). In November 2020, the increase in Canada's year-by-year imports was explained primarily by an increase in imports from China (C$1.36B or 21.6%), Switzerland (C$231M or 59.2%), and Vietnam (C$157M or 22.6%), and product imports increase in Commodities not elsewhere specified (C$490M or 47.9%), Precious Metal Scraps (C$298M or 198%), and Silver (C$196M or 324%).

Flow
Value
Depth

EXPORT GROWTH (November 2019 - November 2020): C$-1.12B, (-2.55%)

IMPORT GROWTH (November 2019 - November 2020): C$232M, (0.48%)

MAIN EXPORTER (November 2020): Ontario, C$18B

MAIN DESTINATION (November 2020): United States, C$30.2B

This section shows exports and imports data at subnational level for Canada. Click any date in the line plot, any subnational region in the geomap, or any product, destination or origin country to explore the exports or imports behavior of Canada over time.

Comparison in Time

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Flow
Value

This section shows the differences between Canada's total subnational aggregate trade throughout time. To explore different subnational trade comparisons in time, visit Canada's subnational profiles.

Explore Canada's Subnational Data

Yearly Exports

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Value
Depth

Top Export (2019): Crude Petroleum, $67.8B

Top Destination (2019): United States, $314B

In 2019, Canada exported a total of $431B, making it the number 11 exporter in the world. During the last five reported years the exports of Canada have changed by -$35.5B from $466B in 2014 to $431B in 2019.

The most recent exports are led by Crude Petroleum ($67.8B), Cars ($40.9B), Gold ($14.6B), Refined Petroleum ($12.3B), and Vehicle Parts ($10.8B). The most common destination for the exports of Canada are United States ($314B), China ($18.5B), United Kingdom ($13.8B), Japan ($9.92B), and Mexico ($6.18B).

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Yearly Imports

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Value
Depth

Top Import (2019): Cars, $27.9B

Top Origin (2019): United States, $252B

In 2019 Canada imported $443B, making it the number 12 trade destination in the world. During the last five reported years the imports of Canada changed by -$7.74B from $450B in 2014 to $443B in 2019.

The most recent imports of Canada are led by Cars ($27.9B), Vehicle Parts ($20.2B), Delivery Trucks ($15.3B), Crude Petroleum ($13.5B), and Refined Petroleum ($13B). The most common import partners for Canada are United States ($252B), China ($47.2B), Mexico ($21.3B), Germany ($12.7B), and Japan ($10.2B).

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Flow

Fastest Growing Export Markets (2018 - 2019)

Fastest Growing Import Markets (2018 - 2019)

Canada Exports Services (2018): $82.9B

Canada Imports Services (2018): $109B

In 2018, Canada exported $82.9B worth of services. The top services exported by Canada in 2018 were Miscellaneous business, professional, and technical services ($22.4B), Personal travel ($19.3B), Computer and information services ($8.85B), Air transport ($6.47B), and Financial services ($5.22B).

The top services imported by Canada in 2018 were Personal travel ($29.3B), Miscellaneous business, professional, and technical services ($19.1B), Royalties and license fees ($11.8B), Sea transport ($11.2B), and Air transport ($9.81B).

Tariffs by Product

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The top product import tariffs by their MFN Ad Valorem value for Canada are Dairy produce: derived from milk, butter (299%) and Milk and cream unsweetened, concentrated (259%).

Click any of the products in the bar chart to see the specific Ad Valorem Duty Rates by partner country.

Explore Tariff Data

*The tariffs applied to imports for Canada are:
90: Australian New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Trade Agreement (ANZCERTA)(1 January 1983)
98: Canada - Chile Free Trade Agreement (5 July 1997)
99: Canada - Colombia Free Trade Agreement (15 August 2011)
100: Canada - Costa Rica Free Trade Agreement (1 November 2002)
101: Canada - European Free Trade Association (EFTA: Switzerland,Iceland,Norway and Liechtenstein, 1 July 2009)
103: Canada - Israel Free Trade Agreement (1 January 1997)
104: Canada - Peru Free Trade Agreement (1 August 2009)
105: Canada Generalized System of Preference
106: Canada GSP for Least Developed Countries
107: Canada United States Free Trade Agreement
108: Caribbean Canada Trade Agreement (CARIBCAN) (Canada - Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Bermuda, Barbados, Belize, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Mon
136: Most Favoured Nation duty rate treatement
142: North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
166: Preferential tariff for Australia (CANATA) Canada Australia Trade Agreement
219: Preferential tariff for European Union countries (AA) Association Agreement
233: Preferential tariff for Honduras
247: Preferential tariff for Jordan
249: Preferential tariff for Korea, Republic of
270: Preferential tariff for Mexico
285: Preferential tariff for Panama
325: Preferential tariff for Ukraine

Economic Complexity

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Economic Complexity Ranking

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Scale

During the last 20 years Canada's⁩ ⁨economy has become relatively less complex, moving from the ⁩⁨13th to the 30th⁩ position in the ECI rank.

These economic complexity rankings use 6 digit exports classified according to the HS96 classification. We consider only countries with population of at least 1 million and exports of at least $1 billion, and products with world trade over $500 million. To explore different rankings and vary these parameters visit the custom rankings section.

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Comparison Map

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Value

This section shows exports, imports and economic complexity data at subnational level for Canada. Click any of the Province in the geomap to visit the specific subnational profile.

Explore Subnational Data

Most Specialized Products by RCA Index

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Canada has a high level of specialization in Semi chemical Woodpulp (22.1), Aircraft Launch Gear (21.3), Oats (21.1), Chlorates and Perchlorates (18.5), and Rapeseed Oil (16.2). Specialization is measured using RCA, an index that takes the ratio between Canada observed and expected exports in each product.

Most Complex Products by PCI

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The highest complexity exports of Canada according to the product complexity index (PCI) are Electric solder, weld, braze,hot metal spray equipment (1.75), Fork-lift trucks, other trucks with lifting equipment (1.67), Machinery for rubber, plastics industry (1.57), Moulds for metals (except ingot), plastic, rubber, etc (1.54), and Special textile products for technical purposes (1.21). PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters.

Export Opportunities by Relatedness

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The top export opportunities for Canada according to the relatedness index, are Nitrogenous Fertilizers (0.29), Scrap Lead (0.29), Refined Petroleum (0.29), Bran (0.28), and Milk (0.28). Relatedness measures the distance between a country's current exports and each product. The barchart show only products that Canada is not specialized in.

The product space is a network connecting products that are likely to be co-exported. The product space can be used to predict future exports, since countries are more likely to start exporting products that are related to current exports. Relatedness measures the distance between a product, and all of the products it is currently specialized in.

Diversification Frontier

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Filter
Depth

The Complexity-Relatedness diagram compares the risk and the strategic value of a country's potential export oppotunities. Relatedness is a predictive of the probability that a country increases its exports in a product. Complexity, is associated with higher levels of income, economic growth, less income inequality, and lower emissions.