Overview In 2019 Canada was the number 10 economy in the world in terms of GDP (current US$), the number 11 in total exports, the number 12 in total imports, the number 20 economy in terms of GDP per capita (current US$) and the number 30 most complex economy according to the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

Exports The top exports of Canada are Crude Petroleum ($67.8B), Cars ($40.9B), Gold ($14.6B), Refined Petroleum ($12.3B), and Vehicle Parts ($10.8B), exporting mostly to United States ($314B), China ($18.5B), United Kingdom ($13.8B), Japan ($9.92B), and Mexico ($6.18B).

In 2019, Canada was the world's biggest exporter of Sawn Wood ($6.35B), Raw Aluminium ($5.45B), Potassic Fertilizers ($5.27B), Rapeseed ($3.23B), and Rapeseed Oil ($2.6B)

Imports The top imports of Canada are Cars ($27.9B), Vehicle Parts ($20.2B), Delivery Trucks ($15.3B), Crude Petroleum ($13.5B), and Refined Petroleum ($13B), importing mostly from United States ($252B), China ($47.2B), Mexico ($21.3B), Germany ($12.7B), and Japan ($10.2B).

In 2019, Canada was the world's biggest importer of Aqueous Paints ($522M), Cabbages ($472M), Lettuce ($451M), Iron Railway Products ($305M), and Asphalt ($273M)

Location Canada borders United States by land and Greenland and Saint Pierre and Miquelon by sea.

September, 2021

Historical Data

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Yearly Exports

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Top Export (2019): Crude Petroleum, $67.8B

Top Destination (2019): United States, $314B

In 2019, Canada exported a total of $431B, making it the number 11 exporter in the world. During the last five reported years the exports of Canada have changed by -$35.5B from $466B in 2014 to $431B in 2019.

The most recent exports are led by Crude Petroleum ($67.8B), Cars ($40.9B), Gold ($14.6B), Refined Petroleum ($12.3B), and Vehicle Parts ($10.8B). The most common destination for the exports of Canada are United States ($314B), China ($18.5B), United Kingdom ($13.8B), Japan ($9.92B), and Mexico ($6.18B).

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Yearly Imports

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Top Import (2019): Cars, $27.9B

Top Origin (2019): United States, $252B

In 2019 Canada imported $443B, making it the number 12 trade destination in the world. During the last five reported years the imports of Canada changed by -$7.74B from $450B in 2014 to $443B in 2019.

The most recent imports of Canada are led by Cars ($27.9B), Vehicle Parts ($20.2B), Delivery Trucks ($15.3B), Crude Petroleum ($13.5B), and Refined Petroleum ($13B). The most common import partners for Canada are United States ($252B), China ($47.2B), Mexico ($21.3B), Germany ($12.7B), and Japan ($10.2B).

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Fastest Growing Export Markets (2018 - 2019)

Fastest Growing Import Markets (2018 - 2019)

Canada Exports Services (2019): $103B

Canada Imports Services (2019): $120B

In 2019, Canada exported $103B worth of services. The top services exported by Canada in 2019 were Other business services ($28.2B), Personal travel ($24.5B), Transportation ($14B), Computer and information services ($10.3B), and Financial services ($9.14B).

The top services imported by Canada in 2019 were Personal travel ($31.4B), Transportation ($24.4B), Other business services ($23.9B), Royalties and license fees ($12.4B), and Financial services ($8.86B).

Tariffs by Product

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The top product import tariffs by their MFN Ad Valorem value for Canada are Fermented beverages nes (eg cider, perry, mead, etc) (39.6k%) and Ethyl alcohol and other spirits, denatured (11.9k%).

Click any of the products in the bar chart to see the specific Ad Valorem Duty Rates by partner country.

*The tariffs applied to imports for Canada are:
90: Australian New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Trade Agreement (ANZCERTA)(1 January 1983)
98: Canada - Chile Free Trade Agreement (5 July 1997)
99: Canada - Colombia Free Trade Agreement (15 August 2011)
100: Canada - Costa Rica Free Trade Agreement (1 November 2002)
101: Canada - European Free Trade Association (EFTA: Switzerland,Iceland,Norway and Liechtenstein, 1 July 2009)
103: Canada - Israel Free Trade Agreement (1 January 1997)
104: Canada - Peru Free Trade Agreement (1 August 2009)
105: Canada Generalized System of Preference
106: Canada GSP for Least Developed Countries
107: Canada United States Free Trade Agreement
108: Caribbean Canada Trade Agreement (CARIBCAN) (Canada - Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Bermuda, Barbados, Belize, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Mon
136: Most Favoured Nation duty rate treatement
142: North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
166: Preferential tariff for Australia (CANATA) Canada Australia Trade Agreement
219: Preferential tariff for European Union countries (AA) Association Agreement
233: Preferential tariff for Honduras
247: Preferential tariff for Jordan
249: Preferential tariff for Korea, Republic of
270: Preferential tariff for Mexico
285: Preferential tariff for Panama
325: Preferential tariff for Ukraine

Economic Complexity

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Comparison Map

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This section shows exports, imports and economic complexity data at the subnational level for Canada. Click any of the Province in the geomap to visit the specific subnational profile.

The top territories of Canada according to its Economic Complexity Index are Ontario (0.13), Quebec (0.026), and British Columbia (-0.14).

In 2020, the principal exporters of Canada were Ontario (C$187B), Alberta (C$91.5B), and Quebec (C$84.2B).

The same year,  the principal importers  of Canada were Ontario (C$338B), Quebec (C$76.5B), and British Columbia (C$53.3B).

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Most Specialized Products by RCA Index

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Canada has a high level of specialization in Semi chemical Woodpulp (22.1), Aircraft Launch Gear (21.3), Oats (21.1), Chlorates and Perchlorates (18.5), and Rapeseed Oil (16.2). Specialization is measured using RCA, an index that takes the ratio between Canada observed and expected exports in each product.

Most Complex Products by PCI

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The highest complexity exports of Canada according to the product complexity index (PCI) are Electric solder, weld, braze,hot metal spray equipment (1.75), Fork-lift trucks, other trucks with lifting equipment (1.67), Machinery for rubber, plastics industry (1.57), Moulds for metals (except ingot), plastic, rubber, etc (1.54), and Special textile products for technical purposes (1.21). PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters.

Export Opportunities by Relatedness

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The top export opportunities for Canada according to the relatedness index, are Nitrogenous Fertilizers (0.29), Scrap Lead (0.29), Refined Petroleum (0.29), Bran (0.28), and Milk (0.28). Relatedness measures the distance between a country's current exports and each product. The barchart show only products that Canada is not specialized in.

The product space is a network connecting products that are likely to be co-exported. The product space can be used to predict future exports, since countries are more likely to start exporting products that are related to current exports. Relatedness measures the distance between a product, and all of the products a country currently specializes in.

Relatedness Space

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This network shows the products most related to the production structure of Canada. These are products that tend to be co-exported with the products that Canada exports. Higher relatedness values ​​indicate greater knowledge, which predicts a greater probability of exporting that product in the future.

Diversification Frontier

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The Complexity-Relatedness diagram compares the risk vs strategic value of a country's potential export oppotunities. Relatedness is predictive of the probability that a country increases its exports in a product. Complexity, is associated with higher levels of income, economic growth, less income inequality, and lower greenhouse emissions.

Economic Complexity Ranking

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During the last 20 years Canada's⁩ ⁨economy has become relatively less complex, moving from the ⁩⁨15th to the 30th⁩ position in the ECI rank.

These economic complexity rankings use 6 digit exports classified according to the HS96 classification. We consider only countries with population of at least 1 million and exports of at least $1 billion, and products with world trade over $500 million. To explore different rankings and vary these parameters visit the custom rankings section.

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