Overview In 2020 Afghanistan was the number 111 economy in the world in terms of GDP (current US$), the number 140 in total exports, the number 113 in total imports, the number 188 economy in terms of GDP per capita (current US$) and the number 109 most complex economy according to the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

Exports The top exports of Afghanistan are Gold ($542M), Grapes ($181M), Other Nuts ($141M), Tropical Fruits ($135M), and Raw Cotton ($114M), exporting mostly to United Arab Emirates ($572M), India ($499M), Pakistan ($492M), China ($54.3M), and Saudi Arabia ($27.4M).

Imports The top imports of Afghanistan are Wheat Flours ($554M), Rolled Tobacco ($473M), Raw Sugar ($200M), Refined Petroleum ($195M), and Electricity ($193M), importing mostly from United Arab Emirates ($1.66B), Pakistan ($870M), India ($855M), Kazakhstan ($622M), and United States ($603M).

In 2020, Afghanistan was the world's biggest importer of Wheat Flours ($554M)

Location Afghanistan borders China, Iran, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan by land.

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The following section uses the most recent trade data from partners of Afghanistan.

Disclaimer: data is presented based on availability and only countries that use the harmonized system are being shown.

*All data is converted to USD using January 2020 exchange rates when data is reported in local currency.

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Data is presented based on data availability. Only countries using the Harmonic System (HS) are selected. Every source is shown using their own latest twelve months of data.

*All data is converted to USD using January 2020 exchange rates when data is reported in local currency.

Historical Data

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Yearly Exports

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Top Export (2020): Gold, $542M

Top Destination (2020): United Arab Emirates, $572M

In 2020, Afghanistan exported a total of $1.76B, making it the number 140 exporter in the world. During the last five reported years the exports of Afghanistan have changed by $862M from $903M in 2015 to $1.76B in 2020.

The most recent exports are led by Gold ($542M), Grapes ($181M), Other Nuts ($141M), Tropical Fruits ($135M), and Raw Cotton ($114M). The most common destination for the exports of Afghanistan are United Arab Emirates ($572M), India ($499M), Pakistan ($492M), China ($54.3M), and Saudi Arabia ($27.4M).

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Yearly Imports

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Top Import (2020): Wheat Flours, $554M

Top Origin (2020): United Arab Emirates, $1.66B

In 2020 Afghanistan imported $6.9B, making it the number 113 trade destination in the world. During the last five reported years the imports of Afghanistan changed by -$5.43B from $12.3B in 2015 to $6.9B in 2020.

The most recent imports of Afghanistan are led by Wheat Flours ($554M), Rolled Tobacco ($473M), Raw Sugar ($200M), Refined Petroleum ($195M), and Electricity ($193M). The most common import partners for Afghanistan are United Arab Emirates ($1.66B), Pakistan ($870M), India ($855M), Kazakhstan ($622M), and United States ($603M).

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Fastest Growing Export Markets (2019 - 2020)

Fastest Growing Import Markets (2019 - 2020)

Afghanistan Exports Services (2019): $652M

Afghanistan Imports Services (2019): $1.19B

In 2019, Afghanistan exported $652M worth of services. The top services exported by Afghanistan in 2019 were Other business services ($150M), Government services, n.i.e. ($147M), Construction services ($111M), Transportation ($107M), and Personal travel ($69.5M).

The top services imported by Afghanistan in 2019 were Transportation ($922M), Personal travel ($129M), Government services, n.i.e. ($52.6M), Other business services ($40.5M), and Computer and information services ($27.4M).

Tariffs by Product

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The top product import tariffs by their MFN Ad Valorem value for Afghanistan are Tricycles, scooters, pedal cars and similar wheeled toys: dolls' carriages: dolls: other toys: reduced-size (scale) models and similar recreational models, working or not: puzzles of all kinds (50%)and Large Sized Cars (45.6%).

Click any of the products in the bar chart to see the specific Ad Valorem Duty Rates by partner country.

*The tariffs applied to imports for Afghanistan are:
136: Most Favoured Nation duty rate treatement
366: South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) Preferential Trading Arragement (SAPTA)

Economic Complexity

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Most Specialized Products by RCA Index

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Afghanistan has a high level of specialization in Insect Resins (1.2k), Spice Seeds (285), Grapes (156), Knotted Carpets (125), and Spices (121). Specialization is measured using RCA, an index that takes the ratio between Afghanistan observed and expected exports in each product.

Most Complex Products by PCI

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The highest complexity exports of Afghanistan according to the product complexity index (PCI) are Sanitary ware and parts thereof, of iron or steel (0.36), Yarn of combed wool, not retail (0.22), Cargo containers designed for carriage of goods (-0.027), Natural steatite (-0.27), and Oats (-0.32). PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters.

Export Opportunities by Relatedness

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The top export opportunities for Afghanistan according to the relatedness index, are Wool (0.11), Manganese Ore (0.1), Legumes (0.1), Niobium, Tantalum, Vanadium and Zirconium Ore (0.099), and Other Hides and Skins (0.099). Relatedness measures the distance between a country's current exports and each product. The barchart show only products that Afghanistan is not specialized in.

The product space is a network connecting products that are likely to be co-exported. The product space can be used to predict future exports, since countries are more likely to start exporting products that are related to current exports. Relatedness measures the distance between a product, and all of the products a country currently specializes in.

Relatedness Space

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This network shows the products most related to the production structure of Afghanistan. These are products that tend to be co-exported with the products that Afghanistan exports. Higher relatedness values ​​indicate greater knowledge, which predicts a greater probability of exporting that product in the future.

Diversification Frontier

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The Complexity-Relatedness diagram compares the risk vs strategic value of a country's potential export oppotunities. Relatedness is predictive of the probability that a country increases its exports in a product. Complexity, is associated with higher levels of income, economic growth, less income inequality, and lower greenhouse emissions.

Economic Complexity Ranking

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During the last 1 years Afghanistan's⁩ ⁨economy has become relatively more complex, moving from the ⁩⁨112th to the 109th⁩ position in the ECI rank.

These economic complexity rankings use 6 digit exports classified according to the HS96 classification. We consider only countries with population of at least 1 million and exports of at least $1 billion, and products with world trade over $500 million. To explore different rankings and vary these parameters visit the custom rankings section.

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