Overview In 2020 Turkey was the number 19 economy in the world in terms of GDP (current US$), the number 29 in total exports, the number 23 in total imports, the number 79 economy in terms of GDP per capita (current US$) and the number 38 most complex economy according to the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

Exports The top exports of Turkey are Cars ($10.1B), Vehicle Parts ($4.59B), Delivery Trucks ($4.34B), Gold ($3.97B), and Refined Petroleum ($3.51B), exporting mostly to Germany ($16.3B), United Kingdom ($12.7B), United States ($10.3B), Iraq ($9.14B), and Italy ($8.23B).

In 2020, Turkey was the world's biggest exporter of Raw Iron Bars ($2.6B), Hand-Woven Rugs ($2.22B), Wheat Flours ($949M), Marble, Travertine and Alabaster ($679M), and Stranded Copper Wire ($349M)

Imports The top imports of Turkey are Gold ($23.7B), Cars ($8.17B), Refined Petroleum ($6.13B), Scrap Iron ($6.01B), and Vehicle Parts ($5.84B), importing mostly from Germany ($24B), China ($22.1B), Russia ($13.1B), United States ($10.7B), and Italy ($8.94B).

In 2020, Turkey was the world's biggest importer of Scrap Iron ($6.01B), Non-Retail Synthetic Filament Yarn ($1.21B), Sunflower Seeds ($560M), Unprocessed Artificial Staple Fibers ($409M), and Looms ($334M)

Location Turkey borders Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece, Iran, Iraq, and Syria by land and Cyprus, Egypt, Romania, Russia, and Ukraine by sea.

December, 2021

Historical Data

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Top Export (2020): Cars, $10.1B

Top Destination (2020): Germany, $24B

In 2020, Turkey exported a total of $177B, making it the number 29 exporter in the world. During the last five reported years the exports of Turkey have changed by $18.1B from $158B in 2015 to $177B in 2020.

The most recent exports are led by Cars ($10.1B), Vehicle Parts ($4.59B), Delivery Trucks ($4.34B), Gold ($3.97B), and Refined Petroleum ($3.51B). The most common destination for the exports of Turkey are Germany ($16.3B), United Kingdom ($12.7B), United States ($10.3B), Iraq ($9.14B), and Italy ($8.23B).

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Fastest Growing Export Markets (2019 - 2020)

Fastest Growing Import Markets (2019 - 2020)

Turkey Exports Services (2018): $8.48B

Turkey Imports Services (2018): $3.87B

In 2018, Turkey exported $8.48B worth of services. The top services exported by Turkey in 2018 were Personal travel ($3.91B), Air transport ($2.43B), Business travel ($506M), Other transport ($335M), and Sea transport ($330M).

The top services imported by Turkey in 2018 were Sea transport ($856M), Air transport ($717M), Personal travel ($496M), Miscellaneous business, professional, and technical services ($426M), and Business travel ($310M).

Tariffs by Product

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The top product import tariffs by their MFN Ad Valorem value for Turkey are Vermouth and other flavoured grape wines - pack > 2l (8.72k%) and Bovine cuts boneless, fresh or chilled (225%).

Click any of the products in the bar chart to see the specific Ad Valorem Duty Rates by partner country.

*The tariffs applied to imports for Turkey are:
136: Most Favoured Nation duty rate treatement
153: Preferential tafiff for Malaysia
160: Preferential tariff for Albania
172: Preferential tariff for Bosnia and Herzegovina
182: Preferential tariff for Chile
206: Preferential tariff for Egypt
217: Preferential tariff for European Free Trade Association (EFTA) countries
219: Preferential tariff for European Union countries (AA) Association Agreement
222: Preferential tariff for Faroe Islands
224: Preferential tariff for for occupied Palestinian territory
226: Preferential tariff for Georgia
242: Preferential tariff for Iran
244: Preferential tariff for Israel
247: Preferential tariff for Jordan
249: Preferential tariff for Korea, Republic of
263: Preferential tariff for Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of
267: Preferential tariff for Mauritius
272: Preferential tariff for Montenegro
273: Preferential tariff for Morocco
299: Preferential tariff for Singapore
318: Preferential tariff for the republic of Moldova
321: Preferential tariff for Tunisia
345: Preferential Trade Agreement among D-8 Member States: D-8 Organization for Economic Cooperation

Economic Complexity

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Most Specialized Products by RCA Index

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Turkey has a high level of specialization in Hand-Woven Rugs (41), Borates (38.9), Marble, Travertine and Alabaster (36.2), Stranded Copper Wire (20.3), and Wheat Flours (19). Specialization is measured using RCA, an index that takes the ratio between Turkey observed and expected exports in each product.

Most Complex Products by PCI

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The highest complexity exports of Turkey according to the product complexity index (PCI) are Machine-tools for shaping metals, nes (2.09), Machine-tools for non-mechanical removal of material (1.73), Screws, bolts, nuts, rivets, washers, etc, iron, steel (1.67), Moulds for metals (except ingot), plastic, rubber, etc (1.49), and Machine-tools for forging, die-stamping, bending metal (1.47). PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters.

Export Opportunities by Relatedness

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The top export opportunities for Turkey according to the relatedness index, are Knit Women's Coats (0.47), Melons (0.46), Preserved Vegetables (0.46), Footwear Parts (0.46), and Other Fruits (0.45). Relatedness measures the distance between a country's current exports and each product. The barchart show only products that Turkey is not specialized in.

The product space is a network connecting products that are likely to be co-exported. The product space can be used to predict future exports, since countries are more likely to start exporting products that are related to current exports. Relatedness measures the distance between a product, and all of the products a country currently specializes in.

Relatedness Space

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This network shows the products most related to the production structure of Turkey. These are products that tend to be co-exported with the products that Turkey exports. Higher relatedness values ​​indicate greater knowledge, which predicts a greater probability of exporting that product in the future.

Diversification Frontier

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The Complexity-Relatedness diagram compares the risk vs strategic value of a country's potential export oppotunities. Relatedness is predictive of the probability that a country increases its exports in a product. Complexity, is associated with higher levels of income, economic growth, less income inequality, and lower greenhouse emissions.

Economic Complexity Ranking

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During the last 20 years Turkey's⁩ ⁨economy has become relatively more complex, moving from the ⁩⁨50th to the 38th⁩ position in the ECI rank.

These economic complexity rankings use 6 digit exports classified according to the HS96 classification. We consider only countries with population of at least 1 million and exports of at least $1 billion, and products with world trade over $500 million. To explore different rankings and vary these parameters visit the custom rankings section.

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