Flag Netherlands

Econ Complexity (2018): 1.16, Rank 20 of 137

Product Exports (2018): $550B, Rank 7 of 222

Exports Per Capita (2018): $31.9k, Rank 113 of 219

Product Imports (2018): $614B, Rank 8 of 221

Imports Per Capita (2018): $35.6k, Rank 113 of 219

Service Exports (2018): $185B, Rank 4 of 62

Service Imports (2018): $179B, Rank 4 of 62

GDP (2018): $858B, CONST 2011 USD
Rank 26 of 188

GDP growth (2008 - 2018): 9.34%, CONST 2011 USD
Rank 154 of 188

GDP PC (2018): $49,787, CONST 2011 USD
Rank 13 of 188

GDP PC GROWTH (2008 - 2018): 4.35%, CONST 2011 USD
Rank 138 of 188

Overview: In 2018 Netherlands was the number 26 economy in the world in terms of GDP (constant 2011 international USD), the number 7 in total exports, the number 8 in total imports, and the number 20 most complex economy according to the Economic Complexity Index (ECI). In 2018, Netherlands exported $550B and imported $614B, resulting in a negative trade balance of -$63.4B. In 2018, Netherlands's exports per capita were $31.9k and its imports per capita were $35.6k.

Trade: The top exports of Netherlands are Refined Petroleum ($46.9B), Broadcasting Equipment ($18.1B), Packaged Medicaments ($16.2B), Computers ($11.2B), and Office Machine Parts ($11.2B). The top imports of Netherlands are Crude Petroleum ($55.4B), Refined Petroleum ($48B), Broadcasting Equipment ($21B), Computers ($17.3B), and Packaged Medicaments ($16B).

Destinations: Netherlands exports mostly to Germany ($111B), Belgium-Luxembourg ($71.3B), United Kingdom ($50.7B), France ($38.3B), and United States ($25.3B), and imports mostly from Germany ($93.6B), China ($63.7B), Belgium-Luxembourg ($57.5B), United States ($44.9B), and Russia ($41B).

Location: Netherlands borders Germany by land and Saint Kitts and Nevis, United Kingdom, Venezuela, and Anguilla by sea.

Product Exports

#permalink to section
Depth
Value

Top Export (2018): Refined Petroleum, $46.9B

Top Destination (2018): Germany, $111B

In 2018 Netherlands exported a total of $550B, making it the number 7 exporter in the world. During the last five reported years the exports of Netherlands have changed by $18.5B from $532B in 2013 to $550B in 2018.

The most recent exports are led by Refined Petroleum ($46.9B), Broadcasting Equipment ($18.1B), Packaged Medicaments ($16.2B), Computers ($11.2B), and Office Machine Parts ($11.2B). The most common destination for the exports of Netherlands are Germany ($111B), Belgium-Luxembourg ($71.3B), United Kingdom ($50.7B), France ($38.3B), and United States ($25.3B).

Explore Visualizations

Product Imports

#permalink to section
Depth
Value

Top Import (2018): Crude Petroleum, $55.4B

Top Origin (2018): Germany, $93.6B

In 2018 Netherlands imported $614B, making it the number 8 trade destination in the world. During the last five reported years the imports of Netherlands changed by $53.7B from $560B in 2013 to $614B in 2018.

The most recent imports of Netherlands are led by Crude Petroleum ($55.4B), Refined Petroleum ($48B), Broadcasting Equipment ($21B), Computers ($17.3B), and Packaged Medicaments ($16B). The most common import partners for Netherlands are Germany ($93.6B), China ($63.7B), Belgium-Luxembourg ($57.5B), United States ($44.9B), and Russia ($41B).

Explore Visualizations

Flow

Fastest Growing Export Markets (2017 - 2018)

Fastest Growing Import Markets (2017 - 2018)

Netherlands Exports Services (2018): $185B

Netherlands Imports Services (2018): $179B

In 2018, Netherlands exported $185B worth of services. The top services exported by Netherlands in 2018 were Other business services ($60.2B), Transportation ($40.1B), Royalties and license fees ($35B), Travel ($18B), and Computer and information services ($16.7B).

The top services imported by Netherlands in 2018 were Other business services ($56.5B), Royalties and license fees ($41.9B), Transportation ($28.9B), Travel ($21.1B), and Computer and information services ($13.9B).

Trade Forecasts

#permalink to section

This section shows forecasts for total product exports and imports for Netherlands. The forecast is based in a long short-term memory model or LSTM constructed using yearly trade data.

Explore Forecasts

Tariffs by Product

#permalink to section

The top product import tariffs by their MFN Ad Valorem value for Netherlands are Sugar beet (178%) and Whey (173%).

Click any of the products in the bar chart to see the specific Ad Valorem Duty Rates by partner country.

Explore Tariff Data

*The tariffs applied to imports for Netherlands are:
109: Caribbean Forum (CARIFORUM) - European Union Economic Partnership Agreements (EPA)
119: Customs Union between EU and Turkey
121: Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) between the EU and the Southern African Development Community (SADC) EPA Group
122: EU preferential tariff for sugar producing countries
123: European Union Generalized System of Preference
124: European Union GSP for Least Developed Countries
136: Most Favoured Nation duty rate treatement
160: Preferential tariff for Albania
161: Preferential tariff for Algeria
162: Preferential tariff for Andorra
172: Preferential tariff for Bosnia and Herzegovina
177: Preferential tariff for Cameroon
181: Preferential tariff for Central American Common Market CACM (Spanish: Mercado Común Centroamericano MCCA) Central American Integration System SICA
182: Preferential tariff for Chile
189: Preferential tariff for Colombia
205: Preferential tariff for Ecuador
206: Preferential tariff for Egypt
209: Preferential tariff for EPA countries
218: Preferential tariff for European Union countries
222: Preferential tariff for Faroe Islands
223: Preferential tariff for Fiji
224: Preferential tariff for for occupied Palestinian territory
226: Preferential tariff for Georgia
227: Preferential tariff for Ghana
238: Preferential tariff for Iceland
239: Preferential tariff for India
244: Preferential tariff for Israel
247: Preferential tariff for Jordan
249: Preferential tariff for Korea, Republic of
255: Preferential tariff for Lebanon
258: Preferential tariff for Liechtenstein
262: Preferential tariff for Macedonia
270: Preferential tariff for Mexico
272: Preferential tariff for Montenegro
273: Preferential tariff for Morocco
281: Preferential tariff for Norway
283: Preferential tariff for Overseas Countries and Territories
284: Preferential tariff for Pakistan
287: Preferential tariff for Papua New Guinea
289: Preferential tariff for Peru
293: Preferential tariff for San Marino
295: Preferential tariff for Selected Eastern and Southern African countries(Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles and Zimbabwe)
299: Preferential tariff for Singapore
302: Preferential tariff for South Africa
306: Preferential tariff for Switzerland
308: Preferential tariff for Syria
318: Preferential tariff for the republic of Moldova
321: Preferential tariff for Tunisia
325: Preferential tariff for Ukraine
341: Preferential tariffs for countries benefiting from the special incentive arrangement for sustainable development and good governance

Economic Complexity

#permalink to section

Economic Complexity Ranking

#permalink to section
Scale

During the last 20 years Netherlands's⁩ ⁨economy has become relatively less complex, moving from the ⁩⁨12th to the 20th⁩ position in the ECI rank.

These economic complexity rankings use 6 digit exports classified according to the HS96 classification. We consider only countries with population of at least 1 million and exports of at least $1 billion, and products with world trade over $500 million. To explore different rankings and vary these parameters visit the custom rankings section.

Explore Rankings

Most Specialized Products by RCA Index

#permalink to section

Netherlands has a high level of specialization in Bulbs and Roots (24.7), Cut Flowers (15.5), Other Live Plants (14.7), Composite Paper (14.4), and Photographic Paper (11.1). Specialization is measured using RCA, an index that takes the ratio between Netherlands observed and expected exports in each product.

Most Complex Products by PCI

#permalink to section

The highest complexity exports of Netherlands according to the product complexity index (PCI) are Chemical preparations for photographic use (2.16), Machines nes having individual functions (2), Equipment for photographic laboratories nes (2), Equipment for physical and chemical analysis (1.87), and Silicones in primary forms (1.84). PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters.

Export Opportunities by Relatedness

#permalink to section

The top export opportunities for Netherlands according to the relatedness index, are Flax Fibers (0.44), Petroleum Coke (0.42), Processed Cereals (0.42), Revenue Stamps (0.42), and Breathing Appliances (0.42). Relatedness measures the distance between a country's current exports and each product. The barchart show only products that Netherlands is not specialized in.

The product space is a network connecting products that are likely to be co-exported. The product space can be used to predict future exports, since countries are more likely to start exporting products that are related to current exports. Relatedness measures the distance between a product, and all of the products it is currently specialized in.

Diversification Frontier

#permalink to section
Depth
Filter

The Complexity-Relatedness diagram compares the risk and the strategic value of a country's potential export oppotunities. Relatedness is a predictive of the probability that a country increases its exports in a product. Complexity, is associated with higher levels of income, economic growth, less income inequality, and lower emissions.