Overview In 2022, Madagascar was the number 131 economy in the world in terms of GDP (current US$), the number 133 in total exports, the number 142 in total imports, the number 182 economy in terms of GDP per capita (current US$) and the number 115 most complex economy according to the Economic Complexity Index (ECI) .

Exports The top exports of Madagascar are Raw Nickel ($929M), Vanilla ($583M), Cloves ($309M), Cobalt ($224M), and Non-Knit Men's Suits ($152M), exporting mostly to United States ($756M), France ($634M), China ($538M), Japan ($448M), and Germany ($162M).

In 2022, Madagascar was the world's biggest exporter of Vanilla ($583M) and Cloves ($309M)

Imports The top imports of Madagascar are Refined Petroleum ($625M), Rice ($299M), Palm Oil ($187M), Light Rubberized Knitted Fabric ($159M), and Sulphur ($133M), importing mostly from China ($1.33B), India ($533M), France ($472M), Oman ($337M), and South Africa ($315M).

Location Madagascar borders Comoros, France, Mozambique, and Seychelles by sea.

Latest Trends

Latest Trade


The following section uses the most recent trade data from partners of Madagascar.

Disclaimer: data is presented based on availability and only countries that use the harmonized system are being shown.

* Trade values are converted to USD using each month's exchange rate. For December 2023 data, the exchange rate from December 30, 2023 is used.

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Latest Data


The data obtained is mirror data. The trade of countries that do not report current data can be reconstructed based on data reported by partner countries with current data available.

*All data is converted to USD using January 2020 exchange rates when data is reported in local currency.

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Historical Data

Yearly Trade

Top Export (2022)Raw Nickel$929M
Top Destination (2022)United States$756M

In 2022, Madagascar exported a total of $4.25B, making it the number 133 exporter in the world. During the last five reported years the exports of Madagascar have changed by $871M from $3.38B in 2017 to $4.25B in 2022.

The most recent exports are led by Raw Nickel ($929M), Vanilla ($583M), Cloves ($309M), Cobalt ($224M), and Non-Knit Men's Suits ($152M). The most common destination for the exports of Madagascar are United States ($756M), France ($634M), China ($538M), Japan ($448M), and Germany ($162M).

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Exports (2022)
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Destinations (2022)
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Market Growth

Fastest Growing Export Markets (2021 - 2022)
Japan$216M (+ 93%)
China$160M (+ 42.4%)
United States$149M (+ 24.5%)
Fastest Growing Import Markets (2021 - 2022)
China$194M (+ 17.1%)
India$193M (+ 56.6%)
South Africa$118M (+ 59.9%)

Total Export Growth by Market (2021 - 2022)

Service Trade

Service Trade

Madagascar Exports Services (2016)$1.13B
Madagascar Imports Services (2016)$1.05B

In 2016, Madagascar exported $1.13B worth of services. The top services exported by Madagascar in 2016 were Personal travel ($750M), Air transport ($195M), Miscellaneous business, professional, and technical services ($55.8M), Sea transport ($47.8M), and Construction in the compiling economy ($26.8M).

The top services imported by Madagascar in 2016 were Sea transport ($334M), Air transport ($242M), Government services, n.i.e. ($180M), Personal travel ($129M), and Miscellaneous business, professional, and technical services ($91.5M).

Service Exports (2016)

Service Imports (2016)

Economic Complexity


Economic Complexity (Trade)-1.08Rank 115 of 133
Economic Complexity (Research)-0.87Rank 114 of 135

Most Specialized Products by RCA Index

Madagascar has a high level of specialization in Vanilla (3.51k), Cloves (2.86k), Graphite (547), Uranium and Thorium Ore (295), and Raw Nickel (274). Specialization is measured using RCA, an index that takes the ratio between Madagascar observed and expected exports in each product.

Most Complex Products by PCI

The highest complexity exports of Madagascar according to the product complexity index (PCI) are Iron or steel; articles, n.e.c. in chapter 73 (0.79), Organic compounds; n.e.c. in chapter 29 (0.43), Alkaloids; natural or reproduced by synthesis, and their salts, ethers, esters and... (0.3), Ethers, ether-alcohols, ether-phenols, ether-alcohol-phenols, alcohol peroxides, ether peroxides, ketone peroxides (chemically defined... (0.14), and Watch straps, watch bands, watch bracelets and parts thereof (0.035). PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters.

Export Opportunities by Relatedness

The top export opportunities for Madagascar according to the relatedness index, were Cassava (0.18), Manganese Ore (0.18), Tea (0.18), Coconuts, Brazil Nuts, and Cashews (0.17), and Legumes (0.17). Relatedness measures the distance between a country's current exports and each product. The barchart show only products that Madagascar is not specialized in.

Product Space

The product space is a network connecting products that are likely to be co-exported. The product space can be used to predict future exports, since countries are more likely to start exporting products that are related to current exports. Relatedness measures the distance between a product, and all of the products a country currently specializes in.

Relatedness Space

This network shows the products most related to the production structure of Madagascar. These are products that tend to be co-exported with the products that Madagascar exports. Higher relatedness values ​​indicate greater knowledge, which predicts a greater probability of exporting that product in the future.

Relatedness Space (2022)

Diversification Frontier


The Complexity-Relatedness diagram compares the risk vs strategic value of a country's potential export oppotunities. Relatedness is predictive of the probability that a country increases its exports in a product. Complexity, is associated with higher levels of income, economic growth, less income inequality, and lower greenhouse emissions.

Diversification Frontier

Economic Complexity Ranking


During the last 20 years Madagascar's⁩ ⁨economy has become relatively less complex, moving from the ⁩⁨nullth to the 115th⁩ position in the ECI rank.

These economic complexity rankings use 6 digit exports classified according to the HS96 classification. We consider only countries with population of at least 1 million and exports of at least $1 billion, and products with world trade over $500 million. To explore different rankings and vary these parameters visit the custom rankings section.

Explore Rankings

ECI (Trade) Ranking by Country

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