Flag Japan

2019
Economic
Complexity
: 2.27, Rank 1 of 157

2019
Product
Exports | Imports
: $696B | $654B, 4 of 225 |  5 of 225

2019
Per Capita Product
Exports | Imports
: $5.51k | $5.18k, 68 of 219 |  83 of 219

2018
Service
Exports | Imports
: $192B | $190B, 3 of 88 | 3 of 88

Overview: In 2019 Japan was the number 3 economy in the world in terms of GDP (current US$), the number 4 in total exports, the number 5 in total imports, the number 27 economy in terms of GDP per capita (current US$) and the number 1 most complex economy according to the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

Exports: The top exports of Japan are Cars ($103B), Vehicle Parts ($33.2B), Integrated Circuits ($30.7B), Machinery Having Individual Functions ($20B), and Passenger and Cargo Ships ($13.7B), exporting mostly to United States ($134B), China ($128B), South Korea ($44.9B), Chinese Taipei ($41.6B), and Thailand ($28.9B).

In 2019, Japan was the world's biggest exporter of Machinery Having Individual Functions ($20B), Photo Lab Equipment ($11.9B), Large Construction Vehicles ($10.8B), Hot-Rolled Iron ($7.49B), and Electrical Capacitors ($6.58B)

Imports: The top imports of Japan are Crude Petroleum ($64B), Petroleum Gas ($42.3B), Coal Briquettes ($20.7B), Integrated Circuits ($17.1B), and Broadcasting Equipment ($16B), importing mostly from China ($152B), United States ($70.1B), Australia ($41.5B), South Korea ($28.3B), and Saudi Arabia ($24.5B).

In 2019, Japan was the world's biggest importer of Corn ($3.32B), Other Prepared Meat ($3.19B), Fuel Wood ($2.11B), Processed Tobacco ($1.8B), Nickel Mattes ($1.55B)

Location: Japan borders China, North Korea, South Korea, Philippines, and Russia by sea.

Latest Trends (February, 2021)

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Overview: In February 2021 Japan exported ¥6.04T and imported ¥5.82T, resulting in a positive trade balance of ¥216B. Between February 2020 and February 2021 the exports of Japan have decreased by ¥-283B (-4.48%) from ¥6.32T to ¥6.04T, while imports increased by ¥608B (11.7%) from ¥5.21T to ¥5.82T.

Trade: In February 2021, the top exports of Japan were Cars (¥761B), Commodities not elsewhere specified (¥394B), Vehicle Parts (¥285B), Machines and apparatus of a kind... (¥240B), and Integrated Circuits (¥238B). In February 2021 the top imports of Japan were Petroleum Gas (¥472B), Crude Petroleum (¥418B), Telephones (¥219B), Integrated Circuits (¥168B), and Computers (¥168B).

Origins: In February 2021 the exports of Japan were mainly from Aichi (¥1.18T), Chiba (¥976B), Osaka (¥813B), Kanagawa (¥615B), and Tokyo (¥522B), while imports destinations were mainly Chiba (¥1.38T), Tokyo (¥929B), Osaka (¥744B), Kanagawa (¥542B), and Aichi (¥503B).

Destinations: In February 2021, Japan exported mostly to China (¥1.17T), United States (¥1.09T), South Korea (¥424B), Taiwan (¥412B), and Thailand (¥282B), and imported mostly from China (¥1.45T), United States (¥620B), Australia (¥328B), South Korea (¥242B), and Taiwan (¥236B).

Growth: In February 2021, the decrease in Japan's year-by-year exports was explained primarily by an decrease in exports to United States (¥-177B or -14%), United Kingdom (¥-38B or -29.3%), and Singapore (¥-34.5B or -17.2%), and product exports decrease in Cars (¥-125B or -14.1%), Refined Petroleum (¥-43.1B or -46.6%), and Passenger and Cargo Ships (¥-30.8B or -24.2%). In February 2021, the increase in Japan's year-by-year imports was explained primarily by an increase in imports from China (¥772B or 115%), Vietnam (¥35.7B or 22.7%), and South Africa (¥21.3B or 51.4%), and product imports increase in Telephones (¥90.3B or 70%), Petroleum Gas (¥71B or 17.7%), and Computers (¥59.5B or 55%).

Comparison in Time

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Flow
Value

This section shows the differences between Japan's total subnational aggregate trade throughout time. To explore different subnational trade comparisons in time, visit Japan's subnational profiles.

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Yearly Exports

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Value
Depth

Top Export (2019): Cars, $103B

Top Destination (2019): United States, $134B

In 2019, Japan exported a total of $696B, making it the number 4 exporter in the world. During the last five reported years the exports of Japan have changed by $4.98B from $691B in 2014 to $696B in 2019.

The most recent exports are led by Cars ($103B), Vehicle Parts ($33.2B), Integrated Circuits ($30.7B), Machinery Having Individual Functions ($20B), and Passenger and Cargo Ships ($13.7B). The most common destination for the exports of Japan are United States ($134B), China ($128B), South Korea ($44.9B), Chinese Taipei ($41.6B), and Thailand ($28.9B).

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Yearly Imports

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Value
Depth

Top Import (2019): Crude Petroleum, $64B

Top Origin (2019): China, $152B

In 2019 Japan imported $654B, making it the number 5 trade destination in the world. During the last five reported years the imports of Japan changed by -$91.4B from $746B in 2014 to $654B in 2019.

The most recent imports of Japan are led by Crude Petroleum ($64B), Petroleum Gas ($42.3B), Coal Briquettes ($20.7B), Integrated Circuits ($17.1B), and Broadcasting Equipment ($16B). The most common import partners for Japan are China ($152B), United States ($70.1B), Australia ($41.5B), South Korea ($28.3B), and Saudi Arabia ($24.5B).

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Flow

Fastest Growing Export Markets (2018 - 2019)

Fastest Growing Import Markets (2018 - 2019)

Japan Exports Services (2018): $192B

Japan Imports Services (2018): $190B

In 2018, Japan exported $192B worth of services. The top services exported by Japan in 2018 were Royalties and license fees ($45.5B), Other business services ($42.1B), Personal travel ($38.6B), Transportation ($28.9B), and Financial services ($11.5B).

The top services imported by Japan in 2018 were Other business services ($68B), Transportation ($38.4B), Royalties and license fees ($21.7B), Personal travel ($16.8B), and Computer and information services ($15.8B).

Tariffs by Product

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The top product import tariffs by their MFN Ad Valorem value for Japan are Bovine edible offal, fresh or chilled (50%) and Bovine edible offal, frozen except livers and tongues (50%).

Click any of the products in the bar chart to see the specific Ad Valorem Duty Rates by partner country.

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*The tariffs applied to imports for Japan are:
84: Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN ) Free Trade Area
130: Japan Generalized System of Preference
131: Japan GSP for Least Developed Countries
136: Most Favoured Nation duty rate treatement
139: Non-MFN duty rate for countries excluded from Most-Favoured- Nation (MFN) treatement
165: Preferential tariff for Australia
174: Preferential tariff for Brunei
182: Preferential tariff for Chile
239: Preferential tariff for India
241: Preferential tariff for Indonesia
265: Preferential tariff for Malaysia
270: Preferential tariff for Mexico
271: Preferential tariff for Mongolia
289: Preferential tariff for Peru
290: Preferential tariff for Philippines
299: Preferential tariff for Singapore
306: Preferential tariff for Switzerland
309: Preferential tariff for Thailand
333: Preferential tariff for Vietnam

Economic Complexity

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Economic Complexity Ranking

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Scale

During the last 20 years Japan's⁩ ⁨economy has become relatively más complex, moving from the ⁩⁨1st to the 1st⁩ position in the ECI rank.

These economic complexity rankings use 6 digit exports classified according to the HS96 classification. We consider only countries with population of at least 1 million and exports of at least $1 billion, and products with world trade over $500 million. To explore different rankings and vary these parameters visit the custom rankings section.

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Comparison Map

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Value

This section shows exports, imports and economic complexity data at subnational level for Japan. Click any of the Prefecture in the geomap to visit the specific subnational profile.

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Most Specialized Products by RCA Index

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Japan has a high level of specialization in Blown Glass (14.6), Photographic Chemicals (12.1), Watch Movements (11.2), Pianos (9.63), and Pearls (8.28). Specialization is measured using RCA, an index that takes the ratio between Japan observed and expected exports in each product.

Most Complex Products by PCI

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The highest complexity exports of Japan according to the product complexity index (PCI) are Photo plate, film, exposed or developed, except cine (2.76), Machining centre, single/multistation transfer machine (2.42), Equipment for photographic laboratories nes (2.25), Chemical element/compound wafers doped for electronics (2.18), and Chemical preparations for photographic use (2.12). PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters.

Export Opportunities by Relatedness

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The top export opportunities for Japan according to the relatedness index, are Cermets (0.39), Aircraft Launch Gear (0.39), Rubber Thread (0.39), Bismuth (0.39), and Office Machine Parts (0.38). Relatedness measures the distance between a country's current exports and each product. The barchart show only products that Japan is not specialized in.

The product space is a network connecting products that are likely to be co-exported. The product space can be used to predict future exports, since countries are more likely to start exporting products that are related to current exports. Relatedness measures the distance between a product, and all of the products it is currently specialized in.

Diversification Frontier

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Depth

The Complexity-Relatedness diagram compares the risk and the strategic value of a country's potential export oppotunities. Relatedness is a predictive of the probability that a country increases its exports in a product. Complexity, is associated with higher levels of income, economic growth, less income inequality, and lower emissions.