About

Overview In 2022, Germany was the number 4 economy in the world in terms of GDP (current US$), the number 3 in total exports, the number 3 in total imports, the number 21 economy in terms of GDP per capita (current US$) and the number 5 most complex economy according to the Economic Complexity Index (ECI) .

Exports The top exports of Germany are Cars ($149B), Packaged Medicaments ($74.8B), Motor vehicles; parts and accessories (8701 to 8705) ($61.8B), Vaccines, blood, antisera, toxins and cultures ($45.5B), and Refined Petroleum ($25.7B), exporting mostly to United States ($153B), France ($120B), China ($109B), Netherlands ($109B), and Italy ($90.7B).

In 2022, Germany was the world's biggest exporter of Cars ($149B), Packaged Medicaments ($74.8B), Motor vehicles; parts and accessories (8701 to 8705) ($61.8B), Electricity ($18B), and Centrifuges ($15.5B)

Imports The top imports of Germany are Petroleum Gas ($98B), Cars ($67.7B), Motor vehicles; parts and accessories (8701 to 8705) ($41.7B), Crude Petroleum ($39.5B), and Vaccines, blood, antisera, toxins and cultures ($36B), importing mostly from China ($152B), Netherlands ($131B), Poland ($93.1B), Belgium ($91.9B), and Italy ($78.5B).

In 2022, Germany was the world's biggest importer of Petroleum Gas ($98B), Nitrogen Heterocyclic Compounds ($19.3B), Reaction and Catalytic Products ($5.42B), Cheese ($5.19B), and Large Flat-Rolled Stainless Steel ($4.95B)

Location Germany borders Austria, Belgium, Czechia, Denmark, France, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, and Switzerland by land and Sweden and United Kingdom by sea.

Latest Trends

March, 2024

Historical Data

Yearly Trade

Flow
Color
Depth
Top Export (2022)Cars$149B
Top Destination (2022)United States$153B

In 2022, Germany exported a total of $1.6T, making it the number 3 exporter in the world. During the last five reported years the exports of Germany have changed by $207B from $1.39T in 2017 to $1.6T in 2022.

The most recent exports are led by Cars ($149B), Packaged Medicaments ($74.8B), Motor vehicles; parts and accessories (8701 to 8705) ($61.8B), Vaccines, blood, antisera, toxins and cultures ($45.5B), and Refined Petroleum ($25.7B). The most common destination for the exports of Germany are United States ($153B), France ($120B), China ($109B), Netherlands ($109B), and Italy ($90.7B).

Explore Visualizations

Exports (2022)
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Destinations (2022)
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Market Growth

Flow
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Fastest Growing Export Markets (2021 - 2022)
United States$17.5B (+ 12.9%)
Netherlands$8.26B (+ 8.23%)
Austria$7.95B (+ 10.1%)
Fastest Growing Import Markets (2021 - 2022)
Norway$41.9B (+ 116%)
Belgium$28.7B (+ 45.4%)
China$18.5B (+ 13.8%)

Total Export Growth by Market (2021 - 2022)

Service Trade

Service Trade

Germany Exports Services (2020)$235B
Germany Imports Services (2020)$237B

In 2020, Germany exported $235B worth of services. The top services exported by Germany in 2020 were Miscellaneous business, professional, and technical services ($64.3B), Royalties and license fees ($35.9B), Sea transport ($30.8B), Financial services ($20.1B), and Personal travel ($15.5B).

The top services imported by Germany in 2020 were Miscellaneous business, professional, and technical services ($71B), Personal travel ($35.3B), Other transport ($28.3B), Sea transport ($17.5B), and Royalties and license fees ($16B).

Service Exports (2020)

Service Imports (2020)

Economic Complexity

Overview

Economic Complexity (Trade)1.78Rank 5 of 133
Economic Complexity (Technology)1.55Rank 2 of 96
Economic Complexity (Research)1.8Rank 11 of 135

Most Specialized Products by RCA Index

Germany has a high level of specialization in Artificial Textile Machinery (7), Cyclic Alcohols (6.24), Electric Locomotives (5.43), Felt Machinery (5.18), and Hops (5.14). Specialization is measured using RCA, an index that takes the ratio between Germany observed and expected exports in each product.

Export Opportunities by Relatedness

The top export opportunities for Germany according to the relatedness index, were Phosphides (0.58), Wood Tar, Oils and Pitch (0.57), Prints (0.57), Other Nickel Products (0.57), and Zirconium (0.56). Relatedness measures the distance between a country's current exports and each product. The barchart show only products that Germany is not specialized in.

Product Space

The product space is a network connecting products that are likely to be co-exported. The product space can be used to predict future exports, since countries are more likely to start exporting products that are related to current exports. Relatedness measures the distance between a product, and all of the products a country currently specializes in.

Relatedness Space

This network shows the products most related to the production structure of Germany. These are products that tend to be co-exported with the products that Germany exports. Higher relatedness values ​​indicate greater knowledge, which predicts a greater probability of exporting that product in the future.

Relatedness Space (2022)

Diversification Frontier

Filter
Depth

The Complexity-Relatedness diagram compares the risk vs strategic value of a country's potential export oppotunities. Relatedness is predictive of the probability that a country increases its exports in a product. Complexity, is associated with higher levels of income, economic growth, less income inequality, and lower greenhouse emissions.

Diversification Frontier

Economic Complexity Ranking

Methodology
Scale

During the last 20 years Germany's⁩ ⁨economy has become relatively less complex, moving from the ⁩⁨2nd to the 5th⁩ position in the ECI rank.

These economic complexity rankings use 6 digit exports classified according to the HS96 classification. We consider only countries with population of at least 1 million and exports of at least $1 billion, and products with world trade over $500 million. To explore different rankings and vary these parameters visit the custom rankings section.

Explore Rankings

ECI (Trade) Ranking by Country

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