Overview In 2020 Germany was the number 4 economy in the world in terms of GDP (current US$), the number 3 in total exports, the number 3 in total imports, the number 19 economy in terms of GDP per capita (current US$) and the number 4 most complex economy according to the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

Exports The top exports of Germany are Cars ($123B), Packaged Medicaments ($60.9B), Vehicle Parts ($54.6B), Blood, antisera, vaccines, toxins and cultures ($34.1B), and Planes, Helicopters, and/or Spacecraft ($20.9B), exporting mostly to United States ($116B), China ($106B), France ($101B), Netherlands ($84.8B), and United Kingdom ($74.4B).

In 2020, Germany was the world's biggest exporter of Cars ($123B), Packaged Medicaments ($60.9B), Vehicle Parts ($54.6B), Blood, antisera, vaccines, toxins and cultures ($34.1B), and Centrifuges ($13.3B)

Imports The top imports of Germany are Cars ($68.9B), Vehicle Parts ($36B), Packaged Medicaments ($32.2B), Broadcasting Equipment ($28.7B), and Blood, antisera, vaccines, toxins and cultures ($25.5B), importing mostly from China ($112B), Netherlands ($105B), Poland ($73.1B), France ($65.2B), and Italy ($62.1B).

In 2020, Germany was the world's biggest importer of Nitrogen Heterocyclic Compounds ($17.7B), Cheese ($4.62B), Precious Metal Scraps ($3.61B), Ball Bearings ($3.61B), and Reaction and Catalytic Products ($3.43B)

Location Germany borders Austria, Belgium, Czechia, Denmark, France, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, and Switzerland by land and Swedenand United Kingdom by sea.

November, 2021

Historical Data

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Yearly Exports

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Top Export (2020): Cars, $123B

Top Destination (2020): United States, $116B

In 2020, Germany exported a total of $1.33T, making it the number 3 exporter in the world. During the last five reported years the exports of Germany have changed by $61.1B from $1.26T in 2015 to $1.33T in 2020.

The most recent exports are led by Cars ($123B), Packaged Medicaments ($60.9B), Vehicle Parts ($54.6B), Blood, antisera, vaccines, toxins and cultures ($34.1B), and Planes, Helicopters, and/or Spacecraft ($20.9B). The most common destination for the exports of Germany are United States ($116B), China ($106B), France ($101B), Netherlands ($84.8B), and United Kingdom ($74.4B).

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Yearly Imports

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Top Import (2020): Cars, $68.9B

Top Origin (2020): China, $112B

In 2020 Germany imported $1.11T, making it the number 3 trade destination in the world. During the last five reported years the imports of Germany changed by $139B from $969B in 2015 to $1.11T in 2020.

The most recent imports of Germany are led by Cars ($68.9B), Vehicle Parts ($36B), Packaged Medicaments ($32.2B), Broadcasting Equipment ($28.7B), and Blood, antisera, vaccines, toxins and cultures ($25.5B). The most common import partners for Germany are China ($112B), Netherlands ($105B), Poland ($73.1B), France ($65.2B), and Italy ($62.1B).

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Fastest Growing Export Markets (2019 - 2020)

Fastest Growing Import Markets (2019 - 2020)

Germany Exports Services (2018): $236B

Germany Imports Services (2018): $245B

In 2018, Germany exported $236B worth of services. The top services exported by Germany in 2018 were Miscellaneous business, professional, and technical services ($64.4B), Computer and information services ($37.2B), Travel ($33.5B), Sea transport ($29.2B), and Royalties and license fees ($23.7B).

The top services imported by Germany in 2018 were Travel ($75.5B), Miscellaneous business, professional, and technical services ($67.5B), Computer and information services ($32.5B), Sea transport ($17.8B), and Royalties and license fees ($15.6B).

Tariffs by Product

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The top product import tariffs by their MFN Ad Valorem value for Germany are Vermouth and other flavoured grape wines - pack > 2l (72.3k%)and Vermouth and other flavoured grape wines - pack > 2l (50.6k%).

Click any of the products in the bar chart to see the specific Ad Valorem Duty Rates by partner country.

*The tariffs applied to imports for Germany are:
109: Caribbean Forum (CARIFORUM) - European Union Economic Partnership Agreements (EPA)
119: Customs Union between EU and Turkey
121: Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) between the EU and the Southern African Development Community (SADC) EPA Group
124: European Union GSP for Least Developed Countries
136: Most Favoured Nation duty rate treatement
160: Preferential tariff for Albania
161: Preferential tariff for Algeria
162: Preferential tariff for Andorra
172: Preferential tariff for Bosnia and Herzegovina
177: Preferential tariff for Cameroon
181: Preferential tariff for Central American Common Market CACM (Spanish: Mercado Común Centroamericano MCCA) Central American Integration System SICA
182: Preferential tariff for Chile
189: Preferential tariff for Colombia
205: Preferential tariff for Ecuador
206: Preferential tariff for Egypt
209: Preferential tariff for EPA countries
218: Preferential tariff for European Union countries
222: Preferential tariff for Faroe Islands
223: Preferential tariff for Fiji
224: Preferential tariff for for occupied Palestinian territory
226: Preferential tariff for Georgia
227: Preferential tariff for Ghana
238: Preferential tariff for Iceland
239: Preferential tariff for India
244: Preferential tariff for Israel
247: Preferential tariff for Jordan
249: Preferential tariff for Korea, Republic of
255: Preferential tariff for Lebanon
258: Preferential tariff for Liechtenstein
270: Preferential tariff for Mexico
272: Preferential tariff for Montenegro
273: Preferential tariff for Morocco
281: Preferential tariff for Norway
283: Preferential tariff for Overseas Countries and Territories
284: Preferential tariff for Pakistan
287: Preferential tariff for Papua New Guinea
289: Preferential tariff for Peru
293: Preferential tariff for San Marino
295: Preferential tariff for Selected Eastern and Southern African countries(Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles and Zimbabwe)
302: Preferential tariff for South Africa
306: Preferential tariff for Switzerland
308: Preferential tariff for Syria
318: Preferential tariff for the republic of Moldova
321: Preferential tariff for Tunisia
325: Preferential tariff for Ukraine
341: Preferential tariffs for countries benefiting from the special incentive arrangement for sustainable development and good governance
398: Preferential tariff for Samoa
399: Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA)

Economic Complexity

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Most Specialized Products by RCA Index

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Germany has a high level of specialization in Electric Locomotives (6.06), Hops (5.25), Artificial Textile Machinery (5.15), Cermets (4.47), and Microscopes (4.45). Specialization is measured using RCA, an index that takes the ratio between Germany observed and expected exports in each product.

Most Complex Products by PCI

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The highest complexity exports of Germany according to the product complexity index (PCI) are Machining centre, single/multistation transfer machine (2.55), Photo plate, film, exposed or developed, except cine (2.45), Machine-tools for shaping metals, nes (2.09), Cermets and articles thereof, waste or scrap (2.08), and Machines to extrude, draw, cut manmade textile fibres (2.02). PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters.

Export Opportunities by Relatedness

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The top export opportunities for Germany according to the relatedness index, are Photo Lab Equipment (0.55), Vegetable Parchment (0.54), Photographic Chemicals (0.53), Wood Tar, Oils and Pitch (0.53), and Hormones (0.53). Relatedness measures the distance between a country's current exports and each product. The barchart show only products that Germany is not specialized in.

The product space is a network connecting products that are likely to be co-exported. The product space can be used to predict future exports, since countries are more likely to start exporting products that are related to current exports. Relatedness measures the distance between a product, and all of the products a country currently specializes in.

Relatedness Space

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This network shows the products most related to the production structure of Germany. These are products that tend to be co-exported with the products that Germany exports. Higher relatedness values ​​indicate greater knowledge, which predicts a greater probability of exporting that product in the future.

Diversification Frontier

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The Complexity-Relatedness diagram compares the risk vs strategic value of a country's potential export oppotunities. Relatedness is predictive of the probability that a country increases its exports in a product. Complexity, is associated with higher levels of income, economic growth, less income inequality, and lower greenhouse emissions.

Economic Complexity Ranking

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During the last 20 years Germany's⁩ ⁨economy has become relatively less complex, moving from the ⁩⁨2nd to the 4th⁩ position in the ECI rank.

These economic complexity rankings use 6 digit exports classified according to the HS96 classification. We consider only countries with population of at least 1 million and exports of at least $1 billion, and products with world trade over $500 million. To explore different rankings and vary these parameters visit the custom rankings section.

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