Overview In 2020 Germany was the number 4 economy in the world in terms of GDP (current US$), the number 3 in total exports, the number 3 in total imports, the number 19 economy in terms of GDP per capita (current US$) and the number 4 most complex economy according to the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

Exports The top exports of Germany are Motor cars and other motor vehicles; principally designed for the transport of... ($123B), Medicaments; (not goods of heading no. 3002, 3005 or 3006) consisting of... ($60.9B), Motor vehicles; parts and accessories, of heading no. 8701 to 8705 ($54.6B), Human blood; animal blood for therapeutic, prophylactic or diagnostic uses; antisera, other... ($34.1B), and Aircraft n.e.c. in heading no. 8801 (e.g. helicopters, aeroplanes); spacecraft (including satellites)... ($20.9B), exporting mostly to United States ($116B), China ($106B), France ($101B), Netherlands ($84.8B), and United Kingdom ($74.4B).

In 2020, Germany was the world's biggest exporter of Motor cars and other motor vehicles; principally designed for the transport of persons (other than those of heading no. 8702), including station wagons and racing cars ($123B), Medicaments; (not goods of heading no. 3002, 3005 or 3006) consisting of mixed or unmixed products for therapeutic or prophylactic use, put up in measured doses (incl. those in the form of transdermal admin. systems) or packed for retail sale ($60.9B), Motor vehicles; parts and accessories, of heading no. 8701 to 8705 ($54.6B), Human blood; animal blood for therapeutic, prophylactic or diagnostic uses; antisera, other blood fractions, immunological products, modified or obtained by biotechnological processes; vaccines, toxins, cultures of micro-organisms (excluding yeasts) etc ($34.1B), and Centrifuges, including centrifugal dryers; filtering or purifying machinery and apparatus for liquids or gases ($13.3B)

Imports The top imports of Germany are Motor cars and other motor vehicles; principally designed for the transport of... ($68.9B), Motor vehicles; parts and accessories, of heading no. 8701 to 8705 ($36B), Medicaments; (not goods of heading no. 3002, 3005 or 3006) consisting of... ($32.2B), Transmission apparatus for radio-broadcasting or television, whether or not incorporating reception apparatus... ($28.7B), and Human blood; animal blood for therapeutic, prophylactic or diagnostic uses; antisera, other... ($25.5B), importing mostly from China ($112B), Netherlands ($105B), Poland ($73.1B), France ($65.2B), and Italy ($62.1B).

In 2020, Germany was the world's biggest importer of Heterocyclic compounds with nitrogen hetero-atom(s) only ($17.7B), Cheese and curd ($4.62B), Waste and scrap of precious metal or of metal clad with precious metal; other waste and scrap containing precious metal compounds, of a kind uses principally for the recovery of precious metal ($3.61B), Ball or roller bearings ($3.61B), and Reaction initiators, reaction accelerators and catalytic preparations n.e.c. or included ($3.43B)

Location Germany borders Austria, Belgium, Czechia, Denmark, France, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, and Switzerland by land and Sweden and United Kingdom by sea.

November, 2021

Historical Data

#permalink to section
Flow
Value
Compare to
Depth

In 2020, Germany exported a total of $1.33T, making it the number 3 exporter in the world. During the last five reported years the exports of Germany have changed by $61.1B from $1.26T in 2015 to $1.33T in 2020.

The most recent exports are led by Motor cars and other motor vehicles; principally designed for the transport of... ($123B), Medicaments; (not goods of heading no. 3002, 3005 or 3006) consisting of... ($60.9B), Motor vehicles; parts and accessories, of heading no. 8701 to 8705 ($54.6B), Human blood; animal blood for therapeutic, prophylactic or diagnostic uses; antisera, other... ($34.1B), and Aircraft n.e.c. in heading no. 8801 (e.g. helicopters, aeroplanes); spacecraft (including satellites)... ($20.9B). The most common destination for the exports of Germany are United States ($116B), China ($106B), France ($101B), Netherlands ($84.8B), and United Kingdom ($74.4B).

Explore Visualizations

Flow
View
Label

Fastest Growing Export Markets (2019 - 2020)

Fastest Growing Import Markets (2019 - 2020)

Germany Exports Services (2018): $236B

Germany Imports Services (2018): $245B

In 2018, Germany exported $236B worth of services. The top services exported by Germany in 2018 were Miscellaneous business, professional, and technical services ($64.4B), Computer and information services ($37.2B), Travel ($33.5B), Sea transport ($29.2B), and Royalties and license fees ($23.7B).

The top services imported by Germany in 2018 were Travel ($75.5B), Miscellaneous business, professional, and technical services ($67.5B), Computer and information services ($32.5B), Sea transport ($17.8B), and Royalties and license fees ($15.6B).

Economic Complexity

#permalink to section

The product space is a network connecting products that are likely to be co-exported. The product space can be used to predict future exports, since countries are more likely to start exporting products that are related to current exports. Relatedness measures the distance between a product, and all of the products a country currently specializes in.

Relatedness Space

#permalink to section

This network shows the products most related to the production structure of Germany. These are products that tend to be co-exported with the products that Germany exports. Higher relatedness values ​​indicate greater knowledge, which predicts a greater probability of exporting that product in the future.

Diversification Frontier

#permalink to section
Filter
Depth

The Complexity-Relatedness diagram compares the risk vs strategic value of a country's potential export oppotunities. Relatedness is predictive of the probability that a country increases its exports in a product. Complexity, is associated with higher levels of income, economic growth, less income inequality, and lower greenhouse emissions.

Economic Complexity Ranking

#permalink to section
Scale

During the last 20 years Germany's⁩ ⁨economy has become relatively less complex, moving from the ⁩⁨2nd to the 4th⁩ position in the ECI rank.

These economic complexity rankings use 6 digit exports classified according to the HS96 classification. We consider only countries with population of at least 1 million and exports of at least $1 billion, and products with world trade over $500 million. To explore different rankings and vary these parameters visit the custom rankings section.

Explore Rankings