The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Quốc gia 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
1 Sơn mài Nhật 2.23856 2.17852 2.11934 2.31329 2.32408
2 Thụy Sĩ 1.92034 1.91828 1.91575 1.95964 2.01041
3 Đức 1.95078 1.91653 1.88894 1.9408 1.87347
4 Thụy Điển 1.89436 1.80167 1.75419 1.80518 1.75179
5 Áo 1.68159 1.69369 1.68617 1.7891 1.71686
6 Singapore 1.49843 1.57804 1.58854 1.68651 1.70347
7 Cộng hòa Séc 1.5676 1.56901 1.55689 1.69489 1.68896
8 Nam Triều Tiên 1.52745 1.49631 1.57505 1.70696 1.64658
9 Phần Lan 1.75639 1.71426 1.67979 1.71439 1.61173
10 Hungary 1.35814 1.3362 1.39419 1.53397 1.52192
11 Vương quốc Anh 1.67044 1.61184 1.57193 1.54878 1.49378
12 Hoa Kỳ 1.58866 1.53293 1.49428 1.49138 1.45359
13 Slovenia 1.39082 1.41407 1.38479 1.46906 1.43073
14 Pháp 1.46951 1.46536 1.45099 1.43611 1.36854
15 Slovakia 1.26737 1.271 1.35695 1.37252 1.3272
16 Ý 1.3267 1.35289 1.34589 1.33488 1.31024
17 Israel 1.21518 1.19138 1.09395 1.21174 1.27127
18 Ireland 1.35691 1.37428 1.33093 1.1731 1.24971
19 Đan Mạch 1.33589 1.30232 1.29129 1.2369 1.13685
20 Hồng Kông 0.582715 0.498958 0.508935 0.801652 1.09895
21 Bỉ 1.22398 1.18347 1.1659 1.13515 1.04707
22 Trung Quốc 0.715732 0.753508 0.774908 0.909906 1.00792
23 Thái Lan 0.510058 0.606687 0.736971 0.870845 0.964292
24 Ba Lan 1.0255 1.02992 1.03324 1.07468 0.960828
25 Mexico 1.08324 0.995923 1.00189 1.00796 0.954246
26 Croatia 0.806099 0.853091 0.926024 0.91927 0.92595
27 Malaysia 0.691407 0.624253 0.588052 0.791729 0.91952
28 Hà Lan 1.10431 1.04799 1.09691 0.952353 0.885129
29 Tây Ban Nha 1.01644 1.02007 1.01742 0.980784 0.842403
30 Belarus 0.690402 0.668625 0.675162 0.918398 0.82272
31 Estonia 0.710075 0.716777 0.704934 0.746338 0.76017
32 Panama 0.327072 0.406595 0.456574 0.630553 0.741643
33 Nước Lithuania 0.571855 0.518934 0.549397 0.64032 0.722513
34 Romania 0.731384 0.685378 0.698277 0.73466 0.70694
35 Bồ Đào Nha 0.677586 0.6909 0.706405 0.650139 0.6184
36 Na Uy 0.563568 0.588332 0.635977 0.535507 0.571734
37 Latvia 0.61794 0.60544 0.626987 0.600318 0.571625
38 Serbia 0.63928 0.658953 0.621737 0.590053 0.562507
39 Bosnia và Herzegovina 0.553484 0.522361 0.574773 0.592368 0.545884
40 Canada 0.741557 0.711973 0.703779 0.526191 0.534847
41 Bulgaria 0.446085 0.39622 0.467999 0.447953 0.497365
42 Ukraina 0.551676 0.526113 0.51783 0.480965 0.469842
43 Gà tây 0.434059 0.408188 0.432695 0.42938 0.450234
44 Philippines 0.193846 0.185253 0.209171 0.331523 0.394726
45 Tunisia 0.045962 -0.002907 0.073213 0.233429 0.291069
46 Lebanon 0.330028 0.365837 0.253783 0.293449 0.281872
47 Costa Rica 0.076485 0.099231 0.10939 0.024263 0.247592
48 Jordan 0.072889 0.243351 0.244437 0.161675 0.216056
49 New Zealand 0.314978 0.224349 0.14369 0.064004 0.166665
50 Brazil 0.396395 0.265535 0.248326 0.190826 0.161553
51 Ấn Độ 0.195512 0.156613 0.111379 0.091946 0.144541
52 Moldova -0.027445 -0.045761 -0.016908 0.049706 0.115221
53 Nga 0.262064 0.236851 0.153215 0.009965 0.077047
54 Colombia 0.220323 0.21155 0.18691 -0.001219 0.049744
55 Uruguay 0.0148 0.092839 0.201715 0.081756 -0.003597
56 El Salvador -0.061823 -0.081826 -0.049824 -0.117335 -0.007233
57 các Tiểu Vương Quốc Ả Rập Thống Nhất -0.087372 -0.090659 0.022855 0.030733 -0.009763
58 Hy Lạp 0.176237 0.246401 0.243817 0.052732 -0.02161
59 Nam Phi 0.142773 0.074112 0.119045 0.016592 -0.023795
60 Saudi Arabia -0.587461 -0.424999 0.159707 -0.074789 -0.07214
61 Indonesia -0.020326 -0.071984 -0.12726 -0.143199 -0.087123
62 Việt Nam -0.320109 -0.350821 -0.350102 -0.215986 -0.104485
63 Macedonia -0.147629 -0.093479 -0.074848 -0.165571 -0.146735
64 Argentina 0.077066 0.071968 0.03248 -0.063178 -0.148047
65 Georgia -0.480803 -0.332959 -0.285249 -0.152888 -0.168891
66 Namibia -0.64927 -0.455053 -0.528921 -0.602309 -0.241151
67 Cộng hòa Dominica -0.167914 -0.225693 -0.237717 -0.26414 -0.256286
68 Guatemala -0.119904 -0.174861 -0.207441 -0.390539 -0.293485
69 Ai Cập -0.203256 -0.246454 -0.222178 -0.289977 -0.321576
70 Chile -0.22253 -0.222266 -0.244314 -0.328124 -0.333627
71 Jamaica -0.122977 -0.185574 -0.177172 -0.215289 -0.349499
72 Sri Lanka -0.413415 -0.404041 -0.462231 -0.482129 -0.368732
73 Qatar -0.332957 -0.175169 -0.321962 -0.395827 -0.390929
74 Honduras -0.634949 -0.726013 -0.687012 -0.690727 -0.398168
75 Kuwait -0.576707 -0.561737 -0.273291 -0.296786 -0.436697
76 Albania 0.151114 0.563279 0.552788 0.272749 -0.472586
77 Úc -0.210701 -0.331165 -0.397884 -0.516626 -0.528256
78 Uzbekistan -0.381779 -0.464363 -0.440298 -0.555588 -0.531504
79 Botswana -0.499249 0.160551 0.103461 -0.354011 -0.532549
80 Morocco -0.422183 -0.495026 -0.543964 -0.509268 -0.535805
81 Cameroon -1.59003 -1.45045 -1.64686 -0.618845 -0.546339
82 Kenya -0.50892 -0.515603 -0.462247 -0.610053 -0.580113
83 Zambia -0.984426 -1.06916 -1.01419 -0.750633 -0.621731
84 Senegal -0.910768 -1.00621 -1.09485 -0.810511 -0.622244
85 Paraguay -0.592209 -0.511621 -0.577246 -0.619805 -0.645452
86 Ecuador -0.803638 -0.867623 -0.7082 -0.770023 -0.708563
87 Nicaragua -0.69023 -0.690234 -0.763813 -0.883107 -0.71229
88 Madagascar -0.98895 -0.99845 -1.02866 -0.831354 -0.726138
89 Tanzania -1.1291 -1.0167 -1.07147 -0.995243 -0.730645
90 Peru -0.635521 -0.669472 -0.63866 -0.746415 -0.742204
91 Oman -0.413821 -0.385965 -0.217931 -0.431956 -0.742942
92 Đi -0.707087 -0.825125 -0.965744 -0.837184 -0.778208
93 Kazakhstan -0.457024 -0.358499 -0.463165 -0.853388 -0.787489
94 Pakistan -0.521128 -0.549741 -0.595481 -0.752351 -0.805746
95 Bolivia -0.795241 -0.828261 -0.821025 -0.939743 -0.853344
96 Trinidad và Tobago -0.665608 -0.578275 -0.466174 -0.567857 -0.858712
97 Iran -1.04616 -1.04947 -1.03542 -1.00321 -0.886393
98 Bangladesh -0.936713 -0.927904 -1.00757 -1.10503 -0.943499
99 Campuchia -1.06295 -0.985864 -1.04752 -1.20676 -0.95203
100 Zimbabwe -0.452638 -0.66792 -0.803228 -0.918402 -1.00205
101 Ghana -1.01148 -0.965165 -1.12736 -1.05444 -1.00907
102 Lào -0.903238 -0.957344 -0.991139 -1.01474 -1.05514
103 Cote d'Ivoire -1.26803 -1.36195 -1.4005 -1.20641 -1.0558
104 Turkmenistan -0.891974 -0.8061 -0.783954 -1.00593 -1.09788
105 Cộng hòa Congo -1.89518 -1.79244 -1.77145 -1.21695 -1.12329
106 Venezuela -0.674475 -0.594428 -0.600758 -0.811479 -1.12529
107 Yemen -1.48326 -1.37207 -1.54769 -1.22062 -1.14902
108 Ethiopia -1.3133 -1.30834 -1.2717 -1.26465 -1.15076
109 Mozambique -1.30539 -1.27566 -1.34061 -1.3111 -1.16195
110 Cộng hòa Dân chủ Congo -1.11877 -1.23828 -1.06271 -1.06695 -1.29544
111 Mông Cổ -0.996349 -0.920288 -1.0525 -1.20509 -1.35158
112 Gabon -0.693013 -0.749222 -1.09114 -0.829728 -1.36163
113 Azerbaijan -1.00637 -1.08488 -1.08757 -1.44623 -1.50891
114 Algeria -1.03209 -1.07781 -1.15498 -1.28473 -1.56777
115 Nigeria -2.53077 -2.76425 -2.35951 -1.71191 -1.61348
116 Sudan -1.94729 -2.02485 -1.8002 -1.93445 -1.65831
117 Guinea -1.58997 -1.71668 -1.82734 -1.72675 -1.66077
118 Mauritania -1.78088 -1.80625 -1.79613 -1.86292 -1.6776
119 Angola -1.95195 -1.96257 -2.01309 -2.09087 -2.79136
120 Syria -0.528191 -0.499214 -0.507876 -0.670493
121 Miến Điện -1.19618 -1.24182 -1.20578 -1.27821