The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Paese 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987
1 Giappone 1.85998 2.15818 2.2608 2.32645 2.39976
2 Germania 1.98972 2.04753 2.13019 2.13913 2.16696
3 Svizzera 1.83181 1.97263 2.0112 2.04334 2.1349
4 Svezia 1.88134 1.91398 2.0021 2.02929 2.06501
5 Austria 1.79615 1.77997 1.88765 1.81925 1.89238
6 Regno Unito 1.81516 1.87932 1.91522 1.86948 1.84502
7 Italia 1.65406 1.67749 1.78471 1.71372 1.73112
8 Francia 1.64592 1.65194 1.75725 1.71191 1.69556
9 Finlandia 1.47076 1.44496 1.58759 1.57979 1.69034
10 Stati Uniti 1.45447 1.60668 1.65658 1.68473 1.62452
11 Danimarca 1.37149 1.39044 1.50081 1.48869 1.50483
12 Belgio 1.39186 1.33047 1.39638 1.45513 1.47377
13 Irlanda 1.19683 1.30511 1.34516 1.34901 1.34749
14 Paesi Bassi 1.0928 1.10124 1.22685 1.25089 1.23651
15 Israele 1.13583 1.16666 1.24422 1.18827 1.17349
16 Spagna 1.12307 1.12951 1.22884 1.11757 1.14212
17 Norvegia 0.91962 0.855352 0.876663 0.866243 0.955728
18 Hong Kong 0.922926 1.0832 0.99998 0.950709 0.942748
19 Corea del Sud 0.870192 0.925091 0.938733 0.903033 0.919086
20 Polonia 0.935998 0.70727 0.669572 0.707914 0.803996
21 Romania 0.69736 0.696714 0.764502 0.780271 0.758278
22 Ungheria 0.822882 0.755505 0.782787 0.690656 0.739834
23 Portogallo 0.894749 0.786569 0.850207 0.759677 0.725108
24 Canada 0.995635 0.767403 0.714533 0.702436 0.712579
25 Messico 0.350078 0.392398 0.41919 0.465516 0.649492
26 Singapore 0.345051 0.636899 0.516443 0.703919 0.623209
27 Bulgaria 0.835249 0.674233 0.620417 0.561423 0.579827
28 El Salvador 0.345506 0.148986 -0.559493 0.294898 0.472801
29 Giordania 0.797023 0.838695 0.768842 0.518866 0.461162
30 Libano 0.600643 0.593993 0.47897 0.557421 0.460734
31 Neozelandese 0.39262 0.488338 0.492142 0.529792 0.417875
32 Uruguay 0.288617 0.349433 0.435058 0.398713 0.404771
33 Brasile 0.196999 0.375735 0.267288 0.345727 0.369739
34 Qatar -0.091036 0.05032 0.370036 0.507998 0.329535
35 Cambogia 0.93646 0.618817 0.565503 0.645039 0.322833
36 Grecia 0.415651 0.382953 0.315273 0.279589 0.289679
37 Turchia 0.422683 0.18852 0.14437 0.118645 0.219343
38 India 0.009795 0.231607 0.209181 0.200489 0.199895
39 Yemen 0.318063 0.251636 0.062197 0.141871
40 Cina 0.282005 0.27951 0.23883 0.147123 0.134055
41 Tunisia 0.092105 0.071816 0.076952 0.064443 0.128234
42 Argentina 0.100525 0.089542 0.02977 0.02127 0.064141
43 Malaysia -0.158291 0.22436 0.135335 0.023944 -0.013715
44 Mozambico -0.42297 -0.411569 -0.315261 -0.19087 -0.051954
45 Trinidad e Tobago -0.113493 -0.194203 -0.226116 0.094595 -0.077639
46 Australia -0.10869 -0.097552 0.024368 -0.079455 -0.085689
47 Repubblica Dominicana -0.179084 -0.332858 -0.178757 -0.151004 -0.110589
48 Emirati Arabi Uniti -0.706481 -0.476698 -0.392549 -0.085901 -0.11452
49 Costarica 0.151419 0.122502 -0.05328 -0.158359 -0.123305
50 Guatemala 0.186049 0.072258 -0.324174 -0.110733 -0.124289
51 Venezuela -0.87396 -0.671298 -0.348603 -0.224144 -0.142738
52 Panama 0.315114 0.489499 0.102947 0.097218 -0.148231
53 Thailandia -0.322116 -0.021323 -0.053782 -0.196221 -0.165517
54 Kuwait 0.16749 -0.216007 -0.617154 0.10631 -0.187616
55 Colombia 0.198326 0.256464 0.059858 -0.04428 -0.190655
56 Arabia Saudita -0.392052 -0.746958 -1.2505 -0.779577 -0.22444
57 Albania 0.203431 -0.040355 -0.226584 -0.336359 -0.229183
58 Nicaragua -0.193166 -0.632906 -1.08428 -0.512901 -0.238517
59 Sudafrica -0.113556 -0.195382 -0.188012 -0.100059 -0.254265
60 Filippine -0.202809 -0.149925 -0.214845 -0.33671 -0.327704
61 Marocco -0.156858 -0.139479 -0.165684 -0.197346 -0.334159
62 Giamaica -0.132885 -0.006167 0.005884 -0.059726 -0.340469
63 Mongolia -0.148033 -0.268388 -0.318123 -0.48517 -0.345683
64 Perù -0.40929 -0.420794 -0.388779 -0.293198 -0.380444
65 Pakistan -0.159002 -0.10831 -0.215134 -0.28839 -0.383374
66 Laos -0.501314 -0.295409 -0.041721 -0.29169 -0.400541
67 Zambia -0.759663 -0.838919 -0.609474 -0.517998 -0.416354
68 Siria -0.30833 -0.229593 -0.357534 -0.282584 -0.41874
69 Chile -0.170715 -0.322281 -0.240817 -0.27313 -0.470722
70 Egitto -0.404609 -0.492947 -0.458009 -0.370879 -0.47398
71 Bangladesh -0.727512 -0.681064 -0.752768 -0.649575 -0.561619
72 Honduras -0.626635 -0.608498 -0.409386 -0.678372 -0.616688
73 Sri Lanka -0.670908 -0.527826 -0.558963 -0.449493 -0.630882
74 Zimbabwe -0.738731 -0.751496 -0.69842 -0.662716 -0.638385
75 Senegal -0.158381 -0.622272 -0.521592 -0.609679 -0.710488
76 Algeria -1.18598 -1.18261 -1.10051 -1.22432 -0.787639
77 Paraguay -0.69011 -0.86529 -0.795192 -0.857056 -0.798989
78 Oman 0.78725 0.573659 -0.116269 -0.861732 -0.812367
79 Etiopia -0.758394 -0.70973 -0.775537 -0.969597 -0.812948
80 Kenia -0.897006 -0.88951 -0.852445 -0.921978 -0.858609
81 Bolivia -0.819953 -1.11108 -0.842486 -0.942779 -0.895863
82 Sudan -1.08322 -1.11237 -0.836808 -1.08179 -0.933388
83 Birmania -0.766736 -0.826776 -0.715804 -0.811849 -0.984295
84 Vietnam -0.742823 -0.783679 -0.726897 -0.771785 -0.984498
85 Mauritania -1.38224 -1.37713 -1.04673 -0.939791 -0.993936
86 Tanzania -1.14815 -1.05332 -0.890427 -0.922606 -1.01029
87 Indonesia -1.40417 -1.30602 -1.27708 -1.19011 -1.11041
88 Ghana -1.09926 -1.22104 -0.999115 -0.99126 -1.16508
89 Ecuador -0.878952 -0.897574 -1.10442 -1.2186 -1.20318
90 Angola -2.01443 -1.94971 -1.78521 -1.822 -1.26181
91 Madagascar -1.36143 -1.27543 -1.24666 -1.39296 -1.29
92 Iran -1.27293 -1.12454 -1.09122 -1.23982 -1.33492
93 Togo -1.63595 -1.50714 -1.58361 -1.37642 -1.40066
94 Congo, Repubblica Democratica del -1.5312 -1.34137 -1.24149 -1.30384 -1.45864
95 Gabon -1.56763 -1.49385 -1.1978 -1.39269 -1.51237
96 Costa d'Avorio -0.930862 -1.03352 -0.966269 -1.40121 -1.51558
97 Congo, Repubblica del -1.69718 -1.68953 -1.57239 -1.59555 -1.56447
98 Nigeria -2.03079 -2.08999 -2.07325 -2.00898 -1.73325
99 Camerun -1.15604 -1.20592 -1.73297 -1.74781 -1.76979
100 Guinea -2.18468 -2.05419 -1.72045 -1.46967 -1.82425