HS Icon Book-binding Machines

8440 (Harmonized System 1992 for 4-digit)

World Trade (2018): $978M, Rnk 918 / 1225

Top Exporter (2018): $271M, Germany

Top Importer (2018): $162M, United States

Product Complexity (2018): 1.15, Rnk 123 / 1018

Export Growth (CAGR)(2017 - 2018): -2.23%, Rnk 1122 / 1225

Mean Tariff (2018): 3.92%, Rnk 1011 / 1259

Share of World Trade (2018): 0.0053%, Rnk 918 / 1225

Overview:  This page contains the latest trade data of Book-binding Machines. In 2018, Book-binding Machines were the world's 918th most traded product, with a total trade of $978M. Between 2017 and 2018 the exports of Book-binding Machines decreased by -2.23%, from  $1B to $978M. Trade in Book-binding Machines represent 0.0053% of total world trade.

Exports: In 2018 the top exporters of Book-binding Machines  were Germany ($271M), Switzerland ($149M), Japan ($93.8M), Italy ($73M), and China ($54.3M).

Imports: In 2018 the top importers of Book-binding Machines were United States ($162M), Germany ($82.6M), China ($68.9M), United Kingdom ($48M), and Netherlands ($47.5M).

Tariffs: In 2018 the average tariff for Book-binding Machines was 3.92%, been the 1011 lowest tariff using the HS4 product classification.

The countries with the highest import tariffs for Book-binding Machines are Bahamas (40.2%), Maldives (19.6%), Cambodia (15%), Bermuda (15%), and Romania (12.9%). The countries with the lowest tariffs are Angola (0%), Egypt (0%), Kenya (0%), Mauritius (0%), and Rwanda (0%).

Ranking: Book-binding Machines ranks 123rd in the Product Complexity Index (PCI).

Exporters and Importers

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Trade By Country

Top Origin (2018): Germany, $271M

Top Destination (2018): United States, $162M

Book-binding Machines are the world's 918th most traded product.

In 2018, the top exporters of Book-binding Machines were Germany ($271M), Switzerland ($149M), Japan ($93.8M), Italy ($73M), and China ($54.3M).

In 2018, the top importers of Book-binding Machines were United States ($162M), Germany ($82.6M), China ($68.9M), United Kingdom ($48M), and Netherlands ($47.5M).

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Market Dynamics

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Trade by country

Value

Top Origin Growth (2017 -  2018): Italy, $15.4M

Top Destination Growth (2017 - 2018): United States, $16.8M

Between 2017 and 2018, the exports of Book-binding Machines grew the fastest in Italy ($15.4M), Netherlands ($10.6M), United Kingdom ($7.3M), Hong Kong ($5.71M), and Poland ($5.09M).

Between 2017 and 2018, the fastest growing importers of Book-binding Machines were United States ($16.8M), China ($14.2M), Hong Kong ($8.03M), Japan ($6.68M), and Netherlands ($6.61M).

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Market Concentration

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Cumulative market share

This chart shows the evolution of the market concentration of exports of Book-binding Machines.

In 2018,  market concentration measured using Shannon Entropy, was 3.82. This means that most of the exports of Book-binding Machines are explained by 14 countries.

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TOP NET EXPORTER (2018): Germany, $188M

TOP NET IMPORTER (2018): United States, $138M

This map shows which countries export or import more of Book-binding Machines. Each country is colored based on the difference in exports and imports of Book-binding Machines during 2018.

In 2018, the countries that had a largest trade value in exports than in imports of Book-binding Machines were Germany ($188M), Switzerland ($127M), Japan ($65.7M), Italy ($36.5M), and Portugal ($22M).

In 2018, the countries that had a largest trade value in imports than in exports of Book-binding Machines were United States ($138M), France ($29.6M), China ($14.6M), Hong Kong ($13.6M), and Russia ($12.4M).

Trade Forecasts

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This section shows forecasts for total trade for Book-binding Machines. The forecast is based in a long short-term memory model or LSTM constructed using yearly trade data.

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Import Tariffs

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In 2018, the average tariff for importing Book-binding Machines was 3.92%.  The countries with the highest tariffs for importing Book-binding Machines were Bahamas (40.2%), Maldives (19.6%), Cambodia (15%), Bermuda (15%), and Romania (12.9%).

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Product Complexity

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Diversification Frontier

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The Complexity-Relatedness diagram compares the risk and the strategic value of a product's potential export opportunities. Relatedness is predictive of the probability that a country increases its exports in a product. Complexity, is associated with higher levels of income, economic growth potential, lower income inequality, and lower emissions.