Overview In 2020, Turkey was the number 19 economy in the world in terms of GDP (current US$), the number 29 in total exports, the number 23 in total imports, the number 79 economy in terms of GDP per capita (current US$) and the number 38 most complex economy according to the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

Exports The top exports of Turkey are Cars ($10.1B), Motor vehicles; parts and accessories (8701 to 8705) ($4.59B), Delivery Trucks ($4.34B), Gold ($3.97B), and Refined Petroleum ($3.51B), exporting mostly to Germany ($16.3B), United Kingdom ($12.7B), United States ($10.3B), Iraq ($9.14B), and Italy ($8.23B).

In 2020, Turkey was the world's biggest exporter of Raw Iron Bars ($2.6B), Hand-Woven Rugs ($2.22B), Wheat Flours ($949M), Marble, Travertine and Alabaster ($679M), and Stranded Copper Wire ($349M)

Imports The top imports of Turkey are Gold ($23.7B), Cars ($8.17B), Refined Petroleum ($6.13B), Scrap Iron ($6.01B), and Motor vehicles; parts and accessories (8701 to 8705) ($5.84B), importing mostly from Germany ($24B), China ($22.1B), Russia ($13.1B), United States ($10.7B), and Italy ($8.94B).

In 2020, Turkey was the world's biggest importer of Scrap Iron ($6.01B), Non-Retail Synthetic Filament Yarn ($1.21B), Sunflower Seeds ($560M), Unprocessed Artificial Staple Fibers ($409M), and Looms ($334M)

Location Turkey borders Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece, Iran, Iraq, and Syria by land and Cyprus, Egypt, Romania, Russia, and Ukraine by sea.

August, 2022

Historical Data

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Top Export (2020): Cars, $10.1B

Top Destination (2020): Germany, $24B

In 2020, Turkey exported a total of $177B, making it the number 29 exporter in the world. During the last five reported years the exports of Turkey have changed by $18.1B from $158B in 2015 to $177B in 2020.

The most recent exports are led by Cars ($10.1B), Motor vehicles; parts and accessories (8701 to 8705) ($4.59B), Delivery Trucks ($4.34B), Gold ($3.97B), and Refined Petroleum ($3.51B). The most common destination for the exports of Turkey are Germany ($16.3B), United Kingdom ($12.7B), United States ($10.3B), Iraq ($9.14B), and Italy ($8.23B).

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Fastest Growing Export Markets (2019 - 2020)

Fastest Growing Import Markets (2019 - 2020)

Turkey Exports Services (2020): $4.07B

Turkey Imports Services (2020): $3.01B

In 2020, Turkey exported $4.07B worth of services. The top services exported by Turkey in 2020 were Transportation ($1.78B), Travel ($1.26B), Miscellaneous business, professional, and technical services ($358M), Insurance services ($274M), and Computer and information services ($198M).

The top services imported by Turkey in 2020 were Transportation ($1.07B), Miscellaneous business, professional, and technical services ($612M), Insurance services ($421M), Royalties and license fees ($260M), and Computer and information services ($218M).

Economic Complexity

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Most Specialized Products by RCA Index

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Turkey has a high level of specialization in Hand-Woven Rugs (41), Borates (38.9), Marble, Travertine and Alabaster (36.2), Stranded Copper Wire (20.3), and Wheat Flours (19). Specialization is measured using RCA, an index that takes the ratio between Turkey observed and expected exports in each product.

Export Opportunities by Relatedness

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The top export opportunities for Turkey according to the relatedness index, are Knit Women's Coats (0.47), Melons (0.46), Preserved Vegetables (0.46), Footwear Parts (0.46), and Other Fruits (0.45). Relatedness measures the distance between a country's current exports and each product. The barchart show only products that Turkey is not specialized in.

The product space is a network connecting products that are likely to be co-exported. The product space can be used to predict future exports, since countries are more likely to start exporting products that are related to current exports. Relatedness measures the distance between a product, and all of the products a country currently specializes in.

Relatedness Space

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This network shows the products most related to the production structure of Turkey. These are products that tend to be co-exported with the products that Turkey exports. Higher relatedness values ​​indicate greater knowledge, which predicts a greater probability of exporting that product in the future.

Diversification Frontier

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The Complexity-Relatedness diagram compares the risk vs strategic value of a country's potential export oppotunities. Relatedness is predictive of the probability that a country increases its exports in a product. Complexity, is associated with higher levels of income, economic growth, less income inequality, and lower greenhouse emissions.

Economic Complexity Ranking

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During the last 20 years Turkey's⁩ ⁨economy has become relatively more complex, moving from the ⁩⁨50th to the 38th⁩ position in the ECI rank.

These economic complexity rankings use 6 digit exports classified according to the HS96 classification. We consider only countries with population of at least 1 million and exports of at least $1 billion, and products with world trade over $500 million. To explore different rankings and vary these parameters visit the custom rankings section.

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