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Overview In 2021, Turkey was the number 19 economy in the world in terms of GDP (current US$), the number 28 in total exports, the number 26 in total imports, the number 88 economy in terms of GDP per capita (current US$) and the number 42 most complex economy according to the Economic Complexity Index (ECI) .

Exports The top exports of Turkey are Cars ($10B), Jewellery ($6.8B), Refined Petroleum ($6.53B), Motor vehicles; parts and accessories (8701 to 8705) ($5.94B), and Delivery Trucks ($5.8B), exporting mostly to Germany ($19.8B), United States ($14.8B), United Kingdom ($14.2B), Italy ($11.6B), and Iraq ($11.1B).

In 2021, Turkey was the world's biggest exporter of Raw Iron Bars ($4.8B), Hand-Woven Rugs ($2.71B), Wheat Flours ($1.11B), Marble, Travertine and Alabaster ($800M), and Iron Radiators ($675M)

Imports The top imports of Turkey are Refined Petroleum ($10.8B), Scrap Iron ($10.3B), Cars ($6.98B), Petroleum Gas ($6.82B), and Motor vehicles; parts and accessories (8701 to 8705) ($6.57B), importing mostly from China ($31.6B), Germany ($24.2B), Russia ($20.1B), United States ($12.4B), and Italy ($11.3B).

In 2021, Turkey was the world's biggest importer of Scrap Iron ($10.3B), Non-Retail Synthetic Filament Yarn ($1.65B), Polycarboxylic Acids ($1.52B), Unprocessed Artificial Staple Fibers ($628M), and Sunflower Seeds ($453M)

Location Turkey borders Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece, Iran, Iraq, and Syria by land and Cyprus, Egypt, Romania, Russia, and Ukraine by sea.

Latest Trends

November, 2023

Historical Data

Yearly Trade

Flow
Color
Depth
Top Export (2021)Cars$10B
Top Destination (2021)Germany$19.8B

In 2021, Turkey exported a total of $234B, making it the number 28 exporter in the world. During the last five reported years the exports of Turkey have changed by $75.3B from $158B in 2016 to $234B in 2021.

The most recent exports are led by Cars ($10B), Jewellery ($6.8B), Refined Petroleum ($6.53B), Motor vehicles; parts and accessories (8701 to 8705) ($5.94B), and Delivery Trucks ($5.8B). The most common destination for the exports of Turkey are Germany ($19.8B), United States ($14.8B), United Kingdom ($14.2B), Italy ($11.6B), and Iraq ($11.1B).

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Exports (2021)
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Destinations (2021)
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Market Growth

Flow
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Fastest Growing Export Markets (2020 - 2021)
United States$4.52B (+ 44.1%)
Germany$3.45B (+ 21.2%)
Italy$3.38B (+ 41%)
Fastest Growing Import Markets (2020 - 2021)
China$9.11B (+ 40.5%)
Russia$7.01B (+ 53.7%)
India$3.05B (+ 63.4%)

Total Export Growth by Market (2020 - 2021)

Service Trade

Service Trade

Turkey Exports Services (2020)$4.07B
Turkey Imports Services (2020)$3.01B

In 2020, Turkey exported $4.07B worth of services. The top services exported by Turkey in 2020 were Transportation ($1.78B), Travel ($1.26B), Miscellaneous business, professional, and technical services ($358M), Insurance services ($274M), and Computer and information services ($198M).

The top services imported by Turkey in 2020 were Transportation ($1.07B), Miscellaneous business, professional, and technical services ($612M), Insurance services ($421M), Royalties and license fees ($260M), and Computer and information services ($218M).

Service Exports (2020)

Service Imports (2020)

Economic Complexity

Overview

Economic Complexity (Trade)0.61Rank 42 of 131
Economic Complexity (Technology)1.23Rank 8 of 96
Economic Complexity (Research)1.02Rank 25 of 140

Most Specialized Products by RCA Index

Turkey has a high level of specialization in Borates (45.9), Retail Artificial Staple Fibers Yarn (41.2), Hand-Woven Rugs (38.2), Marble, Travertine and Alabaster (32.8), and Boron (23.5). Specialization is measured using RCA, an index that takes the ratio between Turkey observed and expected exports in each product.

Export Opportunities by Relatedness

The top export opportunities for Turkey according to the relatedness index, were Footwear Parts (0.47), Melons (0.46), Knit Women's Coats (0.46), Pepper (0.46), and Honey (0.46). Relatedness measures the distance between a country's current exports and each product. The barchart show only products that Turkey is not specialized in.

Product Space

The product space is a network connecting products that are likely to be co-exported. The product space can be used to predict future exports, since countries are more likely to start exporting products that are related to current exports. Relatedness measures the distance between a product, and all of the products a country currently specializes in.

Relatedness Space

This network shows the products most related to the production structure of Turkey. These are products that tend to be co-exported with the products that Turkey exports. Higher relatedness values ​​indicate greater knowledge, which predicts a greater probability of exporting that product in the future.

Diversification Frontier

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Depth

The Complexity-Relatedness diagram compares the risk vs strategic value of a country's potential export oppotunities. Relatedness is predictive of the probability that a country increases its exports in a product. Complexity, is associated with higher levels of income, economic growth, less income inequality, and lower greenhouse emissions.

Economic Complexity Ranking

Methodology
Scale

During the last 20 years Turkey's⁩ ⁨economy has become relatively more complex, moving from the ⁩⁨52nd to the 42nd⁩ position in the ECI rank.

These economic complexity rankings use 6 digit exports classified according to the HS96 classification. We consider only countries with population of at least 1 million and exports of at least $1 billion, and products with world trade over $500 million. To explore different rankings and vary these parameters visit the custom rankings section.

Explore Rankings

ECI (Trade) Ranking by Country

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