Flag Saudi Arabia

2019
Economic
Complexity
: 1, Rank 33 of 157

2019
Product
Exports | Imports
: $228B | $149B, 26 of 225 |  32 of 225

2019
Per Capita Product
Exports | Imports
: $6.64k | $4.33k, 66 of 219 |  89 of 219

2018
Service
Exports | Imports
: $19.7B | $83.8B, 22 of 88 | 11 of 88

Overview: In 2019 Saudi Arabia was the number 18 economy in the world in terms of GDP (current US$), the number 26 in total exports, the number 32 in total imports, the number 43 economy in terms of GDP per capita (current US$) and the number 33 most complex economy according to the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

Exports: The top exports of Saudi Arabia are Crude Petroleum ($145B), Refined Petroleum ($21.8B), Ethylene Polymers ($11.1B), Propylene Polymers ($5.88B), and Acyclic Alcohols ($4.28B), exporting mostly to China ($45.8B), India ($25.1B), Japan ($24.5B), South Korea ($19.5B), and United States ($12.2B).

In 2019, Saudi Arabia was the world's biggest exporter of Crude Petroleum ($145B), Ethylene Polymers ($11.1B), Propylene Polymers ($5.88B), Acyclic Alcohols ($4.28B), and Ammonia ($1.78B)

Imports: The top imports of Saudi Arabia are Cars ($12.5B), Broadcasting Equipment ($4.1B), Refined Petroleum ($3.87B), Packaged Medicaments ($2.95B), and Telephones ($2.5B), importing mostly from China ($26.5B), United Arab Emirates ($17.9B), United States ($13.4B), Germany ($7.08B), and Japan ($6.55B).

In 2019, Saudi Arabia was the world's biggest importer of Armored vehicles ($1.87B), Iron Reductions ($1.33B), Tug Boats ($889M), Sheep and Goats ($641M), Nutmeg, mace and cardamons ($195M)

Location: Saudi Arabia borders Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen by land and Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, and Sudan by sea.

Yearly Exports

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Value
Depth

Top Export (2019): Crude Petroleum, $145B

Top Destination (2019): China, $45.8B

In 2019, Saudi Arabia exported a total of $228B, making it the number 26 exporter in the world. During the last five reported years the exports of Saudi Arabia have changed by -$114B from $342B in 2014 to $228B in 2019.

The most recent exports are led by Crude Petroleum ($145B), Refined Petroleum ($21.8B), Ethylene Polymers ($11.1B), Propylene Polymers ($5.88B), and Acyclic Alcohols ($4.28B). The most common destination for the exports of Saudi Arabia are China ($45.8B), India ($25.1B), Japan ($24.5B), South Korea ($19.5B), and United States ($12.2B).

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Yearly Imports

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Value
Depth

Top Import (2019): Cars, $12.5B

Top Origin (2019): China, $26.5B

In 2019 Saudi Arabia imported $149B, making it the number 32 trade destination in the world. During the last five reported years the imports of Saudi Arabia changed by -$26.7B from $175B in 2014 to $149B in 2019.

The most recent imports of Saudi Arabia are led by Cars ($12.5B), Broadcasting Equipment ($4.1B), Refined Petroleum ($3.87B), Packaged Medicaments ($2.95B), and Telephones ($2.5B). The most common import partners for Saudi Arabia are China ($26.5B), United Arab Emirates ($17.9B), United States ($13.4B), Germany ($7.08B), and Japan ($6.55B).

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Flow

Fastest Growing Export Markets (2018 - 2019)

Fastest Growing Import Markets (2018 - 2019)

Saudi Arabia Exports Services (2018): $19.7B

Saudi Arabia Imports Services (2018): $83.8B

In 2018, Saudi Arabia exported $19.7B worth of services. The top services exported by Saudi Arabia in 2018 were Travel ($13.8B), Transportation ($4.51B), Government services, n.i.e. ($678M), Financial services ($298M), and Computer and information services ($282M).

The top services imported by Saudi Arabia in 2018 were Government services, n.i.e. ($28.8B), Travel ($16.6B), Transportation ($15.7B), Other business services ($10.4B), and Construction services ($6.41B).

Tariffs by Product

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The top product import tariffs by their MFN Ad Valorem value for Saudi Arabia are Tobacco refuse (1.37k%) and Homogenized or reconstituted tobacco (585%).

Click any of the products in the bar chart to see the specific Ad Valorem Duty Rates by partner country.

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*The tariffs applied to imports for Saudi Arabia are:
136: Most Favoured Nation duty rate treatement
217: Preferential tariff for European Free Trade Association (EFTA) countries
231: Preferential tariff for Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)
299: Preferential tariff for Singapore
313: Preferential tariff for the League of Arab States

Economic Complexity

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Economic Complexity Ranking

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Scale

During the last 20 years Saudi Arabia's⁩ ⁨economy has become relatively mÑs complex, moving from the ⁩⁨36th to the 33rd⁩ position in the ECI rank.

These economic complexity rankings use 6 digit exports classified according to the HS96 classification. We consider only countries with population of at least 1 million and exports of at least $1 billion, and products with world trade over $500 million. To explore different rankings and vary these parameters visit the custom rankings section.

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Most Specialized Products by RCA Index

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Saudi Arabia has a high level of specialization in Ammonia (20.6), Crude Petroleum (11.7), Ethylene Polymers (11.3), Acyclic Alcohols (11.1), and Ethers (11.1). Specialization is measured using RCA, an index that takes the ratio between Saudi Arabia observed and expected exports in each product.

Most Complex Products by PCI

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The highest complexity exports of Saudi Arabia according to the product complexity index (PCI) are Epoxides, epoxyalcohols, -phenols -ethers, derivatives (1.48), Amino-resins, pheonolic resins, polyurethanes, primary (1.26), Ketones and quinones, their derivatives (1.22), Phenols and phenol-alcohols (1.21), and Wire of stainless steel (1.18). PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters.

Export Opportunities by Relatedness

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The top export opportunities for Saudi Arabia according to the relatedness index, are Iron Reductions (0.11), Gold (0.093), Halogens (0.093), Asphalt (0.089), and Other Oily Seeds (0.088). Relatedness measures the distance between a country's current exports and each product. The barchart show only products that Saudi Arabia is not specialized in.

The product space is a network connecting products that are likely to be co-exported. The product space can be used to predict future exports, since countries are more likely to start exporting products that are related to current exports. Relatedness measures the distance between a product, and all of the products it is currently specialized in.

Diversification Frontier

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Depth

The Complexity-Relatedness diagram compares the risk and the strategic value of a country's potential export oppotunities. Relatedness is a predictive of the probability that a country increases its exports in a product. Complexity, is associated with higher levels of income, economic growth, less income inequality, and lower emissions.