Flag Germany

2019
Economic
Complexity
: 1.98, Rank 4 of 157

2019
Product
Exports | Imports
: $1.44T | $1.16T, 3 of 225 |  3 of 225

2019
Per Capita Product
Exports | Imports
: $17.3k | $14k, 17 of 219 |  21 of 219

2017
Service
Exports | Imports
: $257B | $283B, 3 of 139 | 3 of 139

Overview: In 2019 Germany was the number 4 economy in the world in terms of GDP (current US$), the number 3 in total exports, the number 3 in total imports, the number 18 economy in terms of GDP per capita (current US$) and the number 4 most complex economy according to the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

Exports: The top exports of Germany are Cars ($145B), Vehicle Parts ($62.9B), Packaged Medicaments ($56.8B), Planes, Helicopters, and/or Spacecraft ($31.8B), and Blood, antisera, vaccines, toxins and cultures ($29.8B), exporting mostly to United States ($131B), France ($115B), China ($107B), Netherlands ($87.7B), and United Kingdom ($86B).

In 2019, Germany was the world's biggest exporter of Cars ($145B), Vehicle Parts ($62.9B), Packaged Medicaments ($56.8B), Centrifuges ($13.7B), and Electrical Control Boards ($13.7B)

Imports: The top imports of Germany are Cars ($75B), Vehicle Parts ($41.1B), Packaged Medicaments ($30.5B), Crude Petroleum ($29.4B), and Refined Petroleum ($23.5B), importing mostly from Netherlands ($106B), China ($96.9B), France ($76.2B), Belgium ($68.9B), and Poland ($68.4B).

In 2019, Germany was the world's biggest importer of Nitrogen Heterocyclic Compounds ($17.9B), Ball Bearings ($4.4B), Cheese ($4.37B), Large Flat-Rolled Stainless Steel ($3.71B), Oxygen Amino Compounds ($3.3B)

Location: Germany borders Austria, Belgium, Czechia, Denmark, France, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, and Switzerland by land and Sweden and United Kingdom by sea.

Latest Trends (January, 2021)

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Overview: In January 2021 Germany exported €97.6B and imported €84.9B, resulting in a positive trade balance of €12.7B. Between January 2020 and January 2021 the exports of Germany have decreased by €-8.12B (-7.68%) from €106B to €97.6B, while imports decreased by €-8.49B (-9.09%) from €93.4B to €84.9B.

Trade: In January 2021, the top exports of Germany were Motor cars and motor caravans (€8.03B), Pharmaceutical products (€7.03B), Chassis, bodies, engines etc. for motor... (€6.37B), Machinery for electricity production, distribution (€5.02B), and Other machinery (€3.66B). In January 2021 the top imports of Germany were Petroleum oil and petroleum gases (€4.75B), Machinery for electricity production, distribution (€4.15B), Motor cars and motor caravans (€4.06B), Estimations for non-response (€4.01B), and Pharmaceutical products (€3.93B).

Origins: In January 2021 the exports of Germany were mainly from Baden-Württemberg (€15.3B), North Rhine-Westphalia (€14.6B), Bavaria (€13B), Lower Saxony (€5.91B), and Hesse (€5.07B), while imports destinations were mainly North Rhine-Westphalia (€18.4B), Bavaria (€15.7B), Baden-Württemberg (€13.2B), Hesse (€8.57B), and Lower Saxony (€7.2B).

Destinations: In January 2021, Germany exported mostly to United States (€8.48B), France (€7.86B), China (€7.53B), Netherlands (€7.4B), and Poland (€5.63B), and imported mostly from China (€10.7B), Netherlands (€7.11B), Poland (€5.04B), United States (€4.93B), and France (€4.46B).

Growth: In January 2021, the decrease in Germany's year-by-year exports was explained primarily by an decrease in exports to United Kingdom (€-1.66B or -27.9%), France (€-857M or -9.83%), and United States (€-552M or -6.12%), and product exports decrease in Motor cars and motor caravans (€-1.36B or -14.5%), Aircraft (€-1.32B or -51.5%), and Measuring and automatical control instruments (€-704M or -22.6%). In January 2021, the decrease in Germany's year-by-year imports was explained primarily by an decrease in imports from United Kingdom (€-1.91B or -52.1%), United States (€-1.37B or -21.7%), and Netherlands (€-816M or -10.3%), and product imports decrease in Aircraft (€-1.03B or -47.6%), Mineral oil products (€-908M or -51.7%), and Petroleum oil and petroleum gases (€-756M or -13.7%).

Comparison in Time

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Flow
Value

This section shows the differences between Germany's total subnational aggregate trade throughout time. To explore different subnational trade comparisons in time, visit Germany's subnational profiles.

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Yearly Exports

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Value
Depth

Top Export (2019): Cars, $145B

Top Destination (2019): United States, $131B

In 2019, Germany exported a total of $1.44T, making it the number 3 exporter in the world. During the last five reported years the exports of Germany have changed by -$9.72B from $1.45T in 2014 to $1.44T in 2019.

The most recent exports are led by Cars ($145B), Vehicle Parts ($62.9B), Packaged Medicaments ($56.8B), Planes, Helicopters, and/or Spacecraft ($31.8B), and Blood, antisera, vaccines, toxins and cultures ($29.8B). The most common destination for the exports of Germany are United States ($131B), France ($115B), China ($107B), Netherlands ($87.7B), and United Kingdom ($86B).

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Yearly Imports

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Value
Depth

Top Import (2019): Cars, $75B

Top Origin (2019): Netherlands, $106B

In 2019 Germany imported $1.16T, making it the number 3 trade destination in the world. During the last five reported years the imports of Germany changed by $31.1B from $1.13T in 2014 to $1.16T in 2019.

The most recent imports of Germany are led by Cars ($75B), Vehicle Parts ($41.1B), Packaged Medicaments ($30.5B), Crude Petroleum ($29.4B), and Refined Petroleum ($23.5B). The most common import partners for Germany are Netherlands ($106B), China ($96.9B), France ($76.2B), Belgium ($68.9B), and Poland ($68.4B).

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Flow

Fastest Growing Export Markets (2018 - 2019)

Fastest Growing Import Markets (2018 - 2019)

Germany Exports Services (2017): $257B

Germany Imports Services (2017): $283B

In 2017, Germany exported $257B worth of services. The top services exported by Germany in 2017 were Miscellaneous business, professional, and technical services ($62.1B), Transportation ($61.8B), Travel ($39.7B), Computer and information services ($37.2B), and Royalties and license fees ($20.1B).

The top services imported by Germany in 2017 were Travel ($83.5B), Miscellaneous business, professional, and technical services ($67B), Transportation ($66.4B), Computer and information services ($33.6B), and Royalties and license fees ($12.7B).

Tariffs by Product

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The top product import tariffs by their MFN Ad Valorem value for Germany are Sugar beet (178%) and Whey (173%).

Click any of the products in the bar chart to see the specific Ad Valorem Duty Rates by partner country.

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*The tariffs applied to imports for Germany are:
109: Caribbean Forum (CARIFORUM) - European Union Economic Partnership Agreements (EPA)
119: Customs Union between EU and Turkey
121: Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) between the EU and the Southern African Development Community (SADC) EPA Group
122: EU preferential tariff for sugar producing countries
123: European Union Generalized System of Preference
124: European Union GSP for Least Developed Countries
136: Most Favoured Nation duty rate treatement
160: Preferential tariff for Albania
161: Preferential tariff for Algeria
162: Preferential tariff for Andorra
172: Preferential tariff for Bosnia and Herzegovina
177: Preferential tariff for Cameroon
181: Preferential tariff for Central American Common Market CACM (Spanish: Mercado Común Centroamericano MCCA) Central American Integration System SICA
182: Preferential tariff for Chile
189: Preferential tariff for Colombia
205: Preferential tariff for Ecuador
206: Preferential tariff for Egypt
209: Preferential tariff for EPA countries
218: Preferential tariff for European Union countries
222: Preferential tariff for Faroe Islands
223: Preferential tariff for Fiji
224: Preferential tariff for for occupied Palestinian territory
226: Preferential tariff for Georgia
227: Preferential tariff for Ghana
238: Preferential tariff for Iceland
239: Preferential tariff for India
244: Preferential tariff for Israel
247: Preferential tariff for Jordan
249: Preferential tariff for Korea, Republic of
255: Preferential tariff for Lebanon
258: Preferential tariff for Liechtenstein
262: Preferential tariff for Macedonia
270: Preferential tariff for Mexico
272: Preferential tariff for Montenegro
273: Preferential tariff for Morocco
281: Preferential tariff for Norway
283: Preferential tariff for Overseas Countries and Territories
284: Preferential tariff for Pakistan
287: Preferential tariff for Papua New Guinea
289: Preferential tariff for Peru
293: Preferential tariff for San Marino
295: Preferential tariff for Selected Eastern and Southern African countries(Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles and Zimbabwe)
299: Preferential tariff for Singapore
302: Preferential tariff for South Africa
306: Preferential tariff for Switzerland
308: Preferential tariff for Syria
318: Preferential tariff for the republic of Moldova
321: Preferential tariff for Tunisia
325: Preferential tariff for Ukraine
341: Preferential tariffs for countries benefiting from the special incentive arrangement for sustainable development and good governance

Economic Complexity

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Economic Complexity Ranking

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Scale

During the last 20 years Germany's⁩ ⁨economy has become relatively less complex, moving from the ⁩⁨2nd to the 4th⁩ position in the ECI rank.

These economic complexity rankings use 6 digit exports classified according to the HS96 classification. We consider only countries with population of at least 1 million and exports of at least $1 billion, and products with world trade over $500 million. To explore different rankings and vary these parameters visit the custom rankings section.

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Comparison Map

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Value

This section shows exports, imports and economic complexity data at subnational level for Germany. Click any of the Region in the geomap to visit the specific subnational profile.

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Most Specialized Products by RCA Index

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Germany has a high level of specialization in Electric Locomotives (7.45), Felt Machinery (5.19), Artificial Textile Machinery (5.09), Hops (5), and Cermets (4.53). Specialization is measured using RCA, an index that takes the ratio between Germany observed and expected exports in each product.

Most Complex Products by PCI

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The highest complexity exports of Germany according to the product complexity index (PCI) are Photo plate, film, exposed or developed, except cine (2.76), Machining centre, single/multistation transfer machine (2.42), Machines nes having individual functions (2.05), Machine-tools for shaping metals, nes (2.03), and Tool plates, tips, etc, sintered metal carbide, cermet (2.03). PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters.

Export Opportunities by Relatedness

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The top export opportunities for Germany according to the relatedness index, are Photo Lab Equipment (0.54), Vegetable Parchment (0.53), Photographic Chemicals (0.53), Armored vehicles (0.52), and Aluminium Gas Containers (0.52). Relatedness measures the distance between a country's current exports and each product. The barchart show only products that Germany is not specialized in.

The product space is a network connecting products that are likely to be co-exported. The product space can be used to predict future exports, since countries are more likely to start exporting products that are related to current exports. Relatedness measures the distance between a product, and all of the products it is currently specialized in.

Diversification Frontier

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Filter
Depth

The Complexity-Relatedness diagram compares the risk and the strategic value of a country's potential export oppotunities. Relatedness is a predictive of the probability that a country increases its exports in a product. Complexity, is associated with higher levels of income, economic growth, less income inequality, and lower emissions.