Flag China

Econ Complexity (2018): 0.89, Rank 30 of 137

Product Exports (2018): $2.59T, Rank 1 of 222

Exports Per Capita (2018): $1.86k, Rank 82 of 219

Product Imports (2018): $1.61T, Rank 2 of 221

Imports Per Capita (2018): $1.16k, Rank 89 of 219

Service Exports (2018): $209B, Rank 2 of 88

Service Imports (2018): $523B, Rank 1 of 88

GDP (2018): $13.6T, CURRENT US$
Rank 2 of 196

GDP growth (2008 - 2018): 196%, CURRENT US$
Rank 6 of 196

GDP PC (2018): $9,771, CURRENT US$
Rank 78 of 196

GDP PC GROWTH (2008 - 2018): 182%, CURRENT US$
Rank 3 of 196

Overview: In 2018 China was the number 2 economy in the world in terms of GDP (current US$), the number 1 in total exports, the number 2 in total imports, and the number 30 most complex economy according to the Economic Complexity Index (ECI). In 2018, China exported $2.59T and imported $1.61T, resulting in a positive trade balance of $977B. In 2018, China's exports per capita were $1.86k and its imports per capita were $1.16k.

Trade: The top exports of China are Broadcasting Equipment ($224B), Computers ($147B), Office Machine Parts ($100B), Integrated Circuits ($90.9B), and Telephones ($55.3B). The top imports of China are Crude Petroleum ($208B), Integrated Circuits ($133B), Iron Ore ($59.2B), Cars ($45.2B), and Petroleum Gas ($44.2B).

Destinations: China exports mostly to United States ($499B), Hong Kong ($282B), Japan ($155B), South Korea ($107B), and Germany ($96.9B), and imports mostly from South Korea ($160B), Japan ($139B), United States ($119B), Germany ($109B), and Chinese Taipei ($97.4B).

Location: China borders North Korea, Russia, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Laos, Vietnam, Hong Kong, and Macau by land and Indonesia, Brunei, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, and Philippines by sea.

Latest Trends (April, 2020)

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Overview: In April 2020 China exported $177B and imported $153B, resulting in a positive trade balance of $24.3B. Between April 2019 and April 2020 the exports of China have increased by $6.84B (4.02%) from $170B to $177B, while imports decreased by $-15.7B (-9.33%) from $168B to $153B.

Trade: In April 2020 the top exports of China were Computers ($13.1B), Telephones ($12.1B), Other Cloth Articles ($8.49B), Integrated Circuits ($5.14B), and Refined Petroleum ($2.86B). In April 2020 the top imports of China were Integrated Circuits ($27.1B), Crude Petroleum ($10.8B), Iron Ore ($8.06B), Petroleum Gas ($3.44B), and Telephones ($3.16B).

Origins: In April 2020 the exports of China were mainly from Guangdong Province ($34.8B), Jiangsu Province ($29.9B), Zhejiang Province ($24.2B), Shanghai Province ($15.1B), and Shandong Province ($13.7B), while imports destinations were mainly Guangdong Province ($31.8B), Shanghai Province ($21.8B), Jiangsu Province ($19.7B), Beijing ($17.3B), and Shandong Province ($9.68B).

Destinations: In April 2020 China exported mostly to United States ($32.1B), Japan ($13.7B), South Korea ($10.1B), Vietnam ($8.63B), and Germany ($7.75B), and imported mostly from Taiwan ($15.4B), Japan ($14.7B), South Korea ($13.5B), China ($10.5B), and Australia ($9.2B).

Growth: In April 2020, the increase in China's year-by-year exports was explained primarily by an increase in exports to Japan ($3.37B or 32.8%), Germany ($1.28B or 19.9%), and Thailand ($1.15B or 35.8%), and product exports increase in Other Cloth Articles ($7.98B or 1.57k%), Computers ($3.52B or 36.7%), and Felt or Coated Fabric Garments ($668M or 344%). In April 2020, the decrease in China's year-by-year imports was explained primarily by a decrease in imports from Switzerland ($-2.48B or -71.8%), Saudi Arabia ($-2.42B or -54%), and Iran ($-1.67B or -76%), and product imports decrease in Crude Petroleum ($-10.8B or -50%), Gold ($-6.11B or -97.1%), and Cars ($-2.78B or -64.8%).


EXPORT GROWTH (April 2019 - April 2020): $6.84B, (4.02%)

IMPORT GROWTH (April 2019 - April 2020): $-15.7B, (-9.33%)

MAIN EXPORTER (April 2020): Guangdong Province, $34.8B

MAIN DESTINATION (April 2020): United States, $32.1B

This section shows exports and imports data at subnational level for China. Click any date in the line plot, any subnational region in the geomap, or any product, destination or origin country to explore the exports or imports behavior of China over time.

Comparison in Time

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This section shows the differences between China's total subnational aggregate trade throughout time. To explore different subnational trade comparisons in time, visit China's subnational profiles.

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Product Exports

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Top Export (2018): Broadcasting Equipment, $224B

Top Destination (2018): United States, $499B

In 2018 China exported a total of $2.59T, making it the number 1 exporter in the world. During the last five reported years the exports of China have changed by $313B from $2.27T in 2013 to $2.59T in 2018.

The most recent exports are led by Broadcasting Equipment ($224B), Computers ($147B), Office Machine Parts ($100B), Integrated Circuits ($90.9B), and Telephones ($55.3B). The most common destination for the exports of China are United States ($499B), Hong Kong ($282B), Japan ($155B), South Korea ($107B), and Germany ($96.9B).

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Product Imports

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Top Import (2018): Crude Petroleum, $208B

Top Origin (2018): South Korea, $160B

In 2018 China imported $1.61T, making it the number 2 trade destination in the world. During the last five reported years the imports of China changed by $23.4B from $1.59T in 2013 to $1.61T in 2018.

The most recent imports of China are led by Crude Petroleum ($208B), Integrated Circuits ($133B), Iron Ore ($59.2B), Cars ($45.2B), and Petroleum Gas ($44.2B). The most common import partners for China are South Korea ($160B), Japan ($139B), United States ($119B), Germany ($109B), and Chinese Taipei ($97.4B).

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Fastest Growing Export Markets (2017 - 2018)

Fastest Growing Import Markets (2017 - 2018)

China Exports Services (2018): $209B

China Imports Services (2018): $523B

In 2018, China exported $209B worth of services. The top services exported by China in 2018 were Other business services ($66.2B), Transportation ($42.3B), Travel ($40.4B), Computer and information services ($30B), and Construction services ($13.6B).

The top services imported by China in 2018 were Travel ($277B), Transportation ($109B), Other business services ($47B), Royalties and license fees ($35.8B), and Computer and information services ($23.5B).

Trade Forecasts

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This section shows forecasts for total product exports and imports for China. The forecast is based in a long short-term memory model or LSTM constructed using yearly trade data.

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Tariffs by Product

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The top product import tariffs by their MFN Ad Valorem value for China are Vermouth and other flavoured grape wines - pack < 2l (65%) and Vermouth and other flavoured grape wines - pack > 2l (65%).

Click any of the products in the bar chart to see the specific Ad Valorem Duty Rates by partner country.

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*The tariffs applied to imports for China are:
84: Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN ) Free Trade Area
112: China Preferential tariff for Least Developed Countries
125: General duty rate
136: Most Favoured Nation duty rate treatement
158: Preferential tariff for 3 selected LDCs Countries: Myanmar, Benin and Timor Leste
165: Preferential tariff for Australia
168: Preferential tariff for Bangladesh
176: Preferential tariff for Cambodia
182: Preferential tariff for Chile
188: Preferential tariff for Chinese Taipei
192: Preferential tariff for Costa Rica
226: Preferential tariff for Georgia
235: Preferential tariff for Hong Kong
238: Preferential tariff for Iceland
249: Preferential tariff for Korea, Republic of
252: Preferential tariff for Lao PDR
261: Preferential tariff for Macau
275: Preferential tariff for Myanmar
277: Preferential tariff for New Zealand
284: Preferential tariff for Pakistan
289: Preferential tariff for Peru
299: Preferential tariff for Singapore
307: Preferential tariff for Switzerland and Liechtenstein
343: Preferential trade agreement (APTA) Asia-Pacific Trade Agreement or (Previously named:Bangkok Agreement)
372: Special Preferential tariff (SP) for 2 Asia Pacific Countries

Economic Complexity

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Economic Complexity Ranking

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During the last 20 years China's⁩ ⁨economy has become relatively more complex, moving from the ⁩⁨59th to the 30th⁩ position in the ECI rank.

These economic complexity rankings use 6 digit exports classified according to the HS96 classification. We consider only countries with population of at least 1 million and exports of at least $1 billion, and products with world trade over $500 million. To explore different rankings and vary these parameters visit the custom rankings section.

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Comparison Map

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This section shows exports, imports and economic complexity data at subnational level for China. Click any of the Subnational Level in the geomap to visit the specific subnational profile.

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Most Specialized Products by RCA Index

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China has a high level of specialization in Artificial Vegetation (6.36), Umbrellas (5.76), Party Decorations (5.67), Portable Lighting (5.44), and Vacuum Flask (5.33). Specialization is measured using RCA, an index that takes the ratio between China observed and expected exports in each product.

Most Complex Products by PCI

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The highest complexity exports of China according to the product complexity index (PCI) are Chemical element/compound wafers doped for electronics (2.2), Electric solder, weld, braze,hot metal spray equipment (1.83), Tools for working in the hand, non-electric motor (1.65), Screws, bolts, nuts, rivets, washers, etc, iron, steel (1.64), and Hand-operated spanners, wrenches and sockets (1.64). PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters.

Export Opportunities by Relatedness

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The top export opportunities for China according to the relatedness index, are Jute Woven Fabric (0.57), Jute Yarn (0.56), Platinum Clad Metals (0.51), Coconut and Other Vegetable Fibers (0.51), and Rubber (0.51). Relatedness measures the distance between a country's current exports and each product. The barchart show only products that China is not specialized in.

The product space is a network connecting products that are likely to be co-exported. The product space can be used to predict future exports, since countries are more likely to start exporting products that are related to current exports. Relatedness measures the distance between a product, and all of the products it is currently specialized in.

Diversification Frontier

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The Complexity-Relatedness diagram compares the risk and the strategic value of a country's potential export oppotunities. Relatedness is a predictive of the probability that a country increases its exports in a product. Complexity, is associated with higher levels of income, economic growth, less income inequality, and lower emissions.