Overview In 2020 Bulgaria was the number 72 economy in the world in terms of GDP (current US$), the number 59 in total exports, the number 58 in total imports, the number 71 economy in terms of GDP per capita (current US$) and the number 41 most complex economy according to the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

Exports The top exports of Bulgaria are Refined Copper ($1.2B), Packaged Medicaments ($1.08B), Refined Petroleum ($1.02B), Raw Copper ($1.01B), and Precious Metal Ore ($761M), exporting mostly to Germany ($5.31B), Romania ($2.94B), Italy ($2.51B), Turkey ($2.1B), and Greece ($2.01B).

In 2020, Bulgaria was the world's biggest exporter of Iron Pyrites ($36.8M)

Imports The top imports of Bulgaria are Copper Ore ($1.62B), Crude Petroleum ($1.42B), Packaged Medicaments ($1.3B), Cars ($1.19B), and Broadcasting Equipment ($675M), importing mostly from Germany ($3.99B), Turkey ($2.63B), Romania ($2.59B), Italy ($2.29B), and Russia ($2.15B).

Location Bulgaria borders Greece, North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, and Turkey by land.


The following section uses the most recent trade data from partners of Bulgaria.

Disclaimer: data is presented based on availability and only countries that use the harmonized system are being shown.

*All data is converted to USD using January 2020 exchange rates when data is reported in local currency.

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Data is presented based on data availability. Only countries using the Harmonic System (HS) are selected. Every source is shown using their own latest twelve months of data.

*All data is converted to USD using January 2020 exchange rates when data is reported in local currency.

Historical Data

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Top Export (2020): Refined Copper, $1.2B

Top Destination (2020): Germany, $3.99B

In 2020, Bulgaria exported a total of $33.2B, making it the number 59 exporter in the world. During the last five reported years the exports of Bulgaria have changed by $6.12B from $27B in 2015 to $33.2B in 2020.

The most recent exports are led by Refined Copper ($1.2B), Packaged Medicaments ($1.08B), Refined Petroleum ($1.02B), Raw Copper ($1.01B), and Precious Metal Ore ($761M). The most common destination for the exports of Bulgaria are Germany ($5.31B), Romania ($2.94B), Italy ($2.51B), Turkey ($2.1B), and Greece ($2.01B).

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Fastest Growing Export Markets (2019 - 2020)

Fastest Growing Import Markets (2019 - 2020)

Bulgaria Exports Services (2019): $4.24B

Bulgaria Imports Services (2019): $3.58B

In 2019, Bulgaria exported $4.24B worth of services. The top services exported by Bulgaria in 2019 were Other transport ($1.38B), Miscellaneous business, professional, and technical services ($1.33B), Reinsurance ($629M), Information services ($351M), and Sea transport ($110M).

The top services imported by Bulgaria in 2019 were Personal travel ($976M), Miscellaneous business, professional, and technical services ($787M), Sea transport ($640M), Other transport ($477M), and Other royalties and license fees ($155M).

Tariffs by Product

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The top product import tariffs by their MFN Ad Valorem value for Bulgaria are Vermouth and other flavoured grape wines - pack > 2l (72.3k%) and Vermouth and other flavoured grape wines - pack > 2l (50.6k%).

Click any of the products in the bar chart to see the specific Ad Valorem Duty Rates by partner country.

*The tariffs applied to imports for Bulgaria are:
109: Caribbean Forum (CARIFORUM) - European Union Economic Partnership Agreements (EPA)
119: Customs Union between EU and Turkey
121: Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) between the EU and the Southern African Development Community (SADC) EPA Group
124: European Union GSP for Least Developed Countries
136: Most Favoured Nation duty rate treatement
160: Preferential tariff for Albania
161: Preferential tariff for Algeria
162: Preferential tariff for Andorra
172: Preferential tariff for Bosnia and Herzegovina
177: Preferential tariff for Cameroon
181: Preferential tariff for Central American Common Market CACM (Spanish: Mercado Común Centroamericano MCCA) Central American Integration System SICA
182: Preferential tariff for Chile
189: Preferential tariff for Colombia
205: Preferential tariff for Ecuador
206: Preferential tariff for Egypt
209: Preferential tariff for EPA countries
218: Preferential tariff for European Union countries
222: Preferential tariff for Faroe Islands
223: Preferential tariff for Fiji
224: Preferential tariff for for occupied Palestinian territory
226: Preferential tariff for Georgia
227: Preferential tariff for Ghana
238: Preferential tariff for Iceland
239: Preferential tariff for India
244: Preferential tariff for Israel
247: Preferential tariff for Jordan
249: Preferential tariff for Korea, Republic of
255: Preferential tariff for Lebanon
258: Preferential tariff for Liechtenstein
270: Preferential tariff for Mexico
272: Preferential tariff for Montenegro
273: Preferential tariff for Morocco
281: Preferential tariff for Norway
283: Preferential tariff for Overseas Countries and Territories
284: Preferential tariff for Pakistan
287: Preferential tariff for Papua New Guinea
289: Preferential tariff for Peru
293: Preferential tariff for San Marino
295: Preferential tariff for Selected Eastern and Southern African countries(Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles and Zimbabwe)
302: Preferential tariff for South Africa
306: Preferential tariff for Switzerland
308: Preferential tariff for Syria
318: Preferential tariff for the republic of Moldova
321: Preferential tariff for Tunisia
325: Preferential tariff for Ukraine
341: Preferential tariffs for countries benefiting from the special incentive arrangement for sustainable development and good governance
398: Preferential tariff for Samoa
399: Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA)

Economic Complexity

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Most Specialized Products by RCA Index

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Bulgaria has a high level of specialization in Sunflower Seeds (56.2), Precious Metal Ore (38.1), Raw Copper (35.4), Non-Retail Combed Wool Yarn (32.8), and Copper Plating (27.3). Specialization is measured using RCA, an index that takes the ratio between Bulgaria observed and expected exports in each product.

Most Complex Products by PCI

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The highest complexity exports of Bulgaria according to the product complexity index (PCI) are Machining centre, single/multistation transfer machine (2.55), Lathes for removing metal (1.68), Taps, cocks, valves for pipes, tanks, boilers, etc (1.41), Tools for working in the hand, non-electric motor (1.37), and Equipment to measure fluid flow, level, pressure, etc (1.3). PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters.

Export Opportunities by Relatedness

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The top export opportunities for Bulgaria according to the relatedness index, are Knit Men's Shirts (0.39), Molasses (0.39), Processed Fish (0.39), Pasta (0.38), and Iron Cloth (0.38). Relatedness measures the distance between a country's current exports and each product. The barchart show only products that Bulgaria is not specialized in.

The product space is a network connecting products that are likely to be co-exported. The product space can be used to predict future exports, since countries are more likely to start exporting products that are related to current exports. Relatedness measures the distance between a product, and all of the products a country currently specializes in.

Relatedness Space

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This network shows the products most related to the production structure of Bulgaria. These are products that tend to be co-exported with the products that Bulgaria exports. Higher relatedness values ​​indicate greater knowledge, which predicts a greater probability of exporting that product in the future.

Diversification Frontier

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The Complexity-Relatedness diagram compares the risk vs strategic value of a country's potential export oppotunities. Relatedness is predictive of the probability that a country increases its exports in a product. Complexity, is associated with higher levels of income, economic growth, less income inequality, and lower greenhouse emissions.

Economic Complexity Ranking

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During the last 20 years Bulgaria's⁩ ⁨economy has become relatively more complex, moving from the ⁩⁨43rd to the 41st⁩ position in the ECI rank.

These economic complexity rankings use 6 digit exports classified according to the HS96 classification. We consider only countries with population of at least 1 million and exports of at least $1 billion, and products with world trade over $500 million. To explore different rankings and vary these parameters visit the custom rankings section.

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