The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Land 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
1 Japan 2.23856 2.17852 2.11934 2.31329 2.32408
2 Schweiz 1.92034 1.91828 1.91575 1.95964 2.01041
3 Deutschland 1.95078 1.91653 1.88894 1.9408 1.87347
4 Schweden 1.89436 1.80167 1.75419 1.80518 1.75179
5 Österreich 1.68159 1.69369 1.68617 1.7891 1.71686
6 Singapur 1.49843 1.57804 1.58854 1.68651 1.70347
7 Tschechische Republik 1.5676 1.56901 1.55689 1.69489 1.68896
8 Südkorea 1.52745 1.49631 1.57505 1.70696 1.64658
9 Finnland 1.75639 1.71426 1.67979 1.71439 1.61173
10 Ungarn 1.35814 1.3362 1.39419 1.53397 1.52192
11 Vereinigtes Königreich 1.67044 1.61184 1.57193 1.54878 1.49378
12 Vereinigte Staaten 1.58866 1.53293 1.49428 1.49138 1.45359
13 Slowenien 1.39082 1.41407 1.38479 1.46906 1.43073
14 Frankreich 1.46951 1.46536 1.45099 1.43611 1.36854
15 Slowakei 1.26737 1.271 1.35695 1.37252 1.3272
16 Italien 1.3267 1.35289 1.34589 1.33488 1.31024
17 Israel 1.21518 1.19138 1.09395 1.21174 1.27127
18 Irland 1.35691 1.37428 1.33093 1.1731 1.24971
19 Dänemark 1.33589 1.30232 1.29129 1.2369 1.13685
20 Hongkong 0.582715 0.498958 0.508935 0.801652 1.09895
21 Belgien 1.22398 1.18347 1.1659 1.13515 1.04707
22 China 0.715732 0.753508 0.774908 0.909906 1.00792
23 Thailand 0.510058 0.606687 0.736971 0.870845 0.964292
24 Polen 1.0255 1.02992 1.03324 1.07468 0.960828
25 Mexiko 1.08324 0.995923 1.00189 1.00796 0.954246
26 Kroatien 0.806099 0.853091 0.926024 0.91927 0.92595
27 Malaysia 0.691407 0.624253 0.588052 0.791729 0.91952
28 Niederlande 1.10431 1.04799 1.09691 0.952353 0.885129
29 Spanien 1.01644 1.02007 1.01742 0.980784 0.842403
30 Weißrussland 0.690402 0.668625 0.675162 0.918398 0.82272
31 Estland 0.710075 0.716777 0.704934 0.746338 0.76017
32 Panama 0.327072 0.406595 0.456574 0.630553 0.741643
33 Litauen 0.571855 0.518934 0.549397 0.64032 0.722513
34 Rumänien 0.731384 0.685378 0.698277 0.73466 0.70694
35 Portugal 0.677586 0.6909 0.706405 0.650139 0.6184
36 Norwegen 0.563568 0.588332 0.635977 0.535507 0.571734
37 Lettland 0.61794 0.60544 0.626987 0.600318 0.571625
38 Serbien 0.63928 0.658953 0.621737 0.590053 0.562507
39 Bosnien und Herzegowina 0.553484 0.522361 0.574773 0.592368 0.545884
40 Kanada 0.741557 0.711973 0.703779 0.526191 0.534847
41 Bulgarien 0.446085 0.39622 0.467999 0.447953 0.497365
42 Ukraine 0.551676 0.526113 0.51783 0.480965 0.469842
43 Türkei 0.434059 0.408188 0.432695 0.42938 0.450234
44 Philippinen 0.193846 0.185253 0.209171 0.331523 0.394726
45 Tunesien 0.045962 -0.002907 0.073213 0.233429 0.291069
46 Libanon 0.330028 0.365837 0.253783 0.293449 0.281872
47 Costa Rica 0.076485 0.099231 0.10939 0.024263 0.247592
48 Jordan 0.072889 0.243351 0.244437 0.161675 0.216056
49 Neuseeland 0.314978 0.224349 0.14369 0.064004 0.166665
50 Brasilien 0.396395 0.265535 0.248326 0.190826 0.161553
51 Indien 0.195512 0.156613 0.111379 0.091946 0.144541
52 Moldawien -0.027445 -0.045761 -0.016908 0.049706 0.115221
53 Russland 0.262064 0.236851 0.153215 0.009965 0.077047
54 Kolumbien 0.220323 0.21155 0.18691 -0.001219 0.049744
55 Uruguay 0.0148 0.092839 0.201715 0.081756 -0.003597
56 El Salvador -0.061823 -0.081826 -0.049824 -0.117335 -0.007233
57 Vereinigte Arabische Emirate -0.087372 -0.090659 0.022855 0.030733 -0.009763
58 Griechenland 0.176237 0.246401 0.243817 0.052732 -0.02161
59 Südafrika 0.142773 0.074112 0.119045 0.016592 -0.023795
60 Saudi-Arabien -0.587461 -0.424999 0.159707 -0.074789 -0.07214
61 Indonesien -0.020326 -0.071984 -0.12726 -0.143199 -0.087123
62 Vietnam -0.320109 -0.350821 -0.350102 -0.215986 -0.104485
63 Mazedonien -0.147629 -0.093479 -0.074848 -0.165571 -0.146735
64 Argentinien 0.077066 0.071968 0.03248 -0.063178 -0.148047
65 Georgia -0.480803 -0.332959 -0.285249 -0.152888 -0.168891
66 Namibia -0.64927 -0.455053 -0.528921 -0.602309 -0.241151
67 Dominikanische Republik -0.167914 -0.225693 -0.237717 -0.26414 -0.256286
68 Guatemala -0.119904 -0.174861 -0.207441 -0.390539 -0.293485
69 Ägypten -0.203256 -0.246454 -0.222178 -0.289977 -0.321576
70 Chile -0.22253 -0.222266 -0.244314 -0.328124 -0.333627
71 Jamaika -0.122977 -0.185574 -0.177172 -0.215289 -0.349499
72 Sri Lanka -0.413415 -0.404041 -0.462231 -0.482129 -0.368732
73 Katar -0.332957 -0.175169 -0.321962 -0.395827 -0.390929
74 Honduras -0.634949 -0.726013 -0.687012 -0.690727 -0.398168
75 Kuwait -0.576707 -0.561737 -0.273291 -0.296786 -0.436697
76 Albanien 0.151114 0.563279 0.552788 0.272749 -0.472586
77 Australien -0.210701 -0.331165 -0.397884 -0.516626 -0.528256
78 Usbekistan -0.381779 -0.464363 -0.440298 -0.555588 -0.531504
79 Botswana -0.499249 0.160551 0.103461 -0.354011 -0.532549
80 Marokko -0.422183 -0.495026 -0.543964 -0.509268 -0.535805
81 Kamerun -1.59003 -1.45045 -1.64686 -0.618845 -0.546339
82 Kenia -0.50892 -0.515603 -0.462247 -0.610053 -0.580113
83 Sambia -0.984426 -1.06916 -1.01419 -0.750633 -0.621731
84 Senegal -0.910768 -1.00621 -1.09485 -0.810511 -0.622244
85 Paraguay -0.592209 -0.511621 -0.577246 -0.619805 -0.645452
86 Ecuador -0.803638 -0.867623 -0.7082 -0.770023 -0.708563
87 Nicaragua -0.69023 -0.690234 -0.763813 -0.883107 -0.71229
88 Madagaskar -0.98895 -0.99845 -1.02866 -0.831354 -0.726138
89 Tansania -1.1291 -1.0167 -1.07147 -0.995243 -0.730645
90 Peru -0.635521 -0.669472 -0.63866 -0.746415 -0.742204
91 Oman -0.413821 -0.385965 -0.217931 -0.431956 -0.742942
92 Togo -0.707087 -0.825125 -0.965744 -0.837184 -0.778208
93 Kasachstan -0.457024 -0.358499 -0.463165 -0.853388 -0.787489
94 Pakistan -0.521128 -0.549741 -0.595481 -0.752351 -0.805746
95 Bolivien -0.795241 -0.828261 -0.821025 -0.939743 -0.853344
96 Trinidad und Tobago -0.665608 -0.578275 -0.466174 -0.567857 -0.858712
97 Iran -1.04616 -1.04947 -1.03542 -1.00321 -0.886393
98 Bangladesch -0.936713 -0.927904 -1.00757 -1.10503 -0.943499
99 Kambodscha -1.06295 -0.985864 -1.04752 -1.20676 -0.95203
100 Simbabwe -0.452638 -0.66792 -0.803228 -0.918402 -1.00205
101 Ghana -1.01148 -0.965165 -1.12736 -1.05444 -1.00907
102 Laos -0.903238 -0.957344 -0.991139 -1.01474 -1.05514
103 Cote d'Ivoire -1.26803 -1.36195 -1.4005 -1.20641 -1.0558
104 Turkmenistan -0.891974 -0.8061 -0.783954 -1.00593 -1.09788
105 Kongo, Republik der -1.89518 -1.79244 -1.77145 -1.21695 -1.12329
106 Venezuela -0.674475 -0.594428 -0.600758 -0.811479 -1.12529
107 Jemen -1.48326 -1.37207 -1.54769 -1.22062 -1.14902
108 Äthiopien -1.3133 -1.30834 -1.2717 -1.26465 -1.15076
109 Mosambik -1.30539 -1.27566 -1.34061 -1.3111 -1.16195
110 Kongo, Demokratische Republik -1.11877 -1.23828 -1.06271 -1.06695 -1.29544
111 Mongolei -0.996349 -0.920288 -1.0525 -1.20509 -1.35158
112 Gabun -0.693013 -0.749222 -1.09114 -0.829728 -1.36163
113 Aserbaidschan -1.00637 -1.08488 -1.08757 -1.44623 -1.50891
114 Algerien -1.03209 -1.07781 -1.15498 -1.28473 -1.56777
115 Nigeria -2.53077 -2.76425 -2.35951 -1.71191 -1.61348
116 Sudan -1.94729 -2.02485 -1.8002 -1.93445 -1.65831
117 Guinea -1.58997 -1.71668 -1.82734 -1.72675 -1.66077
118 Mauretanien -1.78088 -1.80625 -1.79613 -1.86292 -1.6776
119 Angola -1.95195 -1.96257 -2.01309 -2.09087 -2.79136
120 Syrien -0.528191 -0.499214 -0.507876 -0.670493
121 Birma -1.19618 -1.24182 -1.20578 -1.27821