The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Land 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
1 Japan 2.45075 2.47862 2.46767 2.40412 2.34652
2 Deutschland 2.19574 2.20445 2.15958 2.11126 2.01485
3 Schweiz 2.12764 2.05783 2.06907 2.05479 1.99311
4 Schweden 2.09665 2.08697 2.02943 1.94426 1.91852
5 Finnland 1.80769 1.81559 1.80046 1.77725 1.77327
6 Vereinigtes Königreich 1.94824 1.89629 1.77065 1.72653 1.7096
7 Österreich 1.76393 1.81965 1.74605 1.7452 1.70293
8 Vereinigte Staaten 1.85046 1.76594 1.74324 1.66414 1.62483
9 Singapur 1.53699 1.63902 1.5652 1.46932 1.55653
10 Südkorea 1.31421 1.27258 1.41097 1.52046 1.54709
11 Tschechische Republik 1.55938 1.53388 1.54784 1.55209 1.52445
12 Frankreich 1.60873 1.55541 1.54456 1.50134 1.47143
13 Slowenien 1.42282 1.55648 1.54609 1.49585 1.44105
14 Dänemark 1.50739 1.50872 1.4818 1.44935 1.40257
15 Ungarn 1.11232 1.15856 1.17404 1.2364 1.30326
16 Italien 1.37375 1.3861 1.39804 1.34865 1.29984
17 Irland 1.62751 1.51601 1.3506 1.37041 1.29819
18 Belgien 1.37738 1.33257 1.27927 1.23122 1.26407
19 Slowakei 1.20213 1.20926 1.28788 1.27784 1.20851
20 Niederlande 1.21646 1.18126 1.18347 1.09357 1.09737
21 Israel 1.04926 1.1044 1.0958 1.04361 1.08661
22 Mexiko 1.02195 0.978828 0.986745 1.10303 1.06339
23 Spanien 1.04465 1.04322 1.0347 1.02466 1.02372
24 Polen 0.897007 0.899269 0.967138 0.968439 0.978851
25 Kroatien 0.645311 0.681113 0.735727 0.787117 0.842586
26 Kanada 0.919277 0.862716 0.848054 0.811793 0.789332
27 Malaysia 0.753853 0.854059 0.795607 0.781241 0.716039
28 Estland 0.515964 0.562663 0.674146 0.694548 0.713069
29 Weißrussland 0.723122 0.832963 0.858138 0.856248 0.682706
30 Serbien 0.620072 0.678498
31 Rumänien 0.373828 0.320218 0.42384 0.493627 0.673123
32 Norwegen 0.758139 0.775049 0.757271 0.716319 0.660506
33 Portugal 0.488495 0.559365 0.627309 0.638432 0.637016
34 China 0.442061 0.452979 0.474971 0.587449 0.632635
35 Ukraine 0.488237 0.551859 0.595211 0.553144 0.601226
36 Lettland 0.311667 0.309156 0.427594 0.532376 0.549968
37 Brasilien 0.42281 0.399357 0.450112 0.477157 0.548606
38 Bosnien und Herzegowina 0.210007 0.365334 0.429642 0.52393 0.529734
39 Hongkong 0.549568 0.567609 0.574415 0.5907 0.527091
40 Litauen 0.164931 0.196164 0.309178 0.448797 0.521501
41 Russland 0.65224 0.568381 0.557305 0.607811 0.510294
42 Thailand 0.418108 0.446709 0.463214 0.433048 0.491304
43 Türkei 0.176945 0.177247 0.252509 0.366668 0.413431
44 Bulgarien 0.365341 0.309366 0.34386 0.373395 0.410246
45 Neuseeland 0.25454 0.287348 0.334674 0.348336 0.340088
46 Libanon -0.056157 -0.017576 0.113553 0.169187 0.298636
47 Panama 0.033435 0.025462 0.036751 0.120865 0.262895
48 Griechenland 0.221214 0.210503 0.233397 0.172724 0.204131
49 Indien 0.176804 0.152537 0.158145 0.167513 0.168601
50 Südafrika 0.128366 0.094685 0.16654 0.237984 0.165269
51 Philippinen -0.005396 -0.0344 -0.119035 -0.000206 0.123978
52 Jordan -0.113429 0.012317 -0.044752 0.009857 0.116103
53 Argentinien -0.022571 0.002533 0.03593 0.053536 0.073768
54 Uruguay 0.096728 -0.045061 0.017114 0.009544 0.065203
55 Kolumbien 0.141137 0.108143 0.108932 0.053324 0.024946
56 Tunesien -0.316525 -0.279088 -0.159174 -0.131907 -0.002222
57 Vereinigte Arabische Emirate -0.157405 -0.090661 -0.085822 0.027597 -0.021976
58 Costa Rica 0.010613 -0.004518 0.006471 -0.074199 -0.022522
59 Katar -0.418974 0.1045 0.024745 -0.164568 -0.052826
60 Moldawien 0.042335 -0.019115 -0.071912 -0.133663 -0.072815
61 Indonesien -0.015577 -0.079228 -0.03753 -0.118449 -0.08396
62 Saudi-Arabien 0.104983 0.155848 -0.074557 -0.14292 -0.153061
63 Trinidad und Tobago 0.071435 0.003869 0.033114 -0.015152 -0.153895
64 Mazedonien -0.172163 -0.062273 -0.107521 -0.191644 -0.17045
65 Australien -0.038353 -0.218672 -0.213502 -0.155239 -0.171363
66 Chile -0.069191 -0.150324 -0.150391 -0.196433 -0.171878
67 El Salvador -0.102685 -0.094959 -0.080838 -0.116526 -0.189023
68 Ägypten -0.368092 -0.351883 -0.313441 -0.225445 -0.220008
69 Dominikanische Republik -0.469881 -0.300896 -0.332228 -0.211474 -0.222327
70 Guatemala -0.408678 -0.353519 -0.260139 -0.295499 -0.227969
71 Georgia 0.178932 -0.17425 -0.18585 -0.305433 -0.257126
72 Oman -0.745175 -0.540399 -0.792679 -0.520017 -0.267441
73 Jamaika -0.538303 -0.294213 -0.307798 -0.427749 -0.281016
74 Kasachstan -0.102081 -0.271761 -0.249486 -0.208866 -0.340398
75 Venezuela -0.062459 -0.134651 -0.147508 -0.163963 -0.342388
76 Kuwait -0.156717 -0.11916 -0.268955 -0.163299 -0.350656
77 Vietnam -0.630272 -0.653033 -0.632908 -0.518922 -0.378907
78 Sri Lanka -0.62927 -0.59254 -0.543395 -0.49913 -0.429014
79 Albanien -0.02384 -0.128714 -0.245883 -0.395101 -0.490889
80 Usbekistan -0.463409 -0.453 -0.433318 -0.430205 -0.494788
81 Simbabwe -0.343785 -0.373302 -0.395862 -0.404289 -0.495619
82 Marokko -0.76984 -0.648625 -0.48776 -0.504934 -0.522127
83 Pakistan -0.751032 -0.770235 -0.789144 -0.628576 -0.562095
84 Paraguay -0.566719 -0.603935 -0.516896 -0.602863 -0.582084
85 Peru -0.514557 -0.648479 -0.579638 -0.554171 -0.614336
86 Honduras -0.656674 -0.566724 -0.676137 -0.74113 -0.623958
87 Kenia -0.575552 -0.701251 -0.6198 -0.703524 -0.680229
88 Algerien -0.875592 -1.11 -1.11468 -0.788727 -0.682755
89 Syrien -0.941886 -0.86175 -0.749744 -0.694426 -0.685109
90 Iran -0.853785 -0.881575 -0.898796 -0.79443 -0.750568
91 Laos -0.843126 -1.01988 -0.891806 -0.883054 -0.820657
92 Ecuador -0.856247 -0.846191 -0.77456 -0.851284 -0.834038
93 Bolivien -0.797802 -0.919345 -0.856918 -0.851524 -0.871062
94 Senegal -0.972446 -0.872446 -0.809369 -0.821983 -0.889482
95 Botswana -0.818465 -0.708473 -0.845061 -0.856364 -0.891555
96 Togo -0.676074 -0.758799 -0.856163 -0.931563 -0.895164
97 Nicaragua -0.807707 -0.763565 -0.820232 -0.892176 -0.900827
98 Turkmenistan -0.952721 -0.940244 -0.915679 -0.757745 -0.917194
99 Sambia -1.09653 -0.934754 -0.925683 -1.17274 -0.921299
100 Namibia -0.554921 -0.655761 -0.805754 -0.846134 -0.936692
101 Gabun -1.6291 -0.956786 -1.31646 -1.26555 -0.961084
102 Bangladesch -1.1201 -1.23386 -1.17652 -1.19826 -1.01275
103 Mongolei -0.681431 -0.865264 -0.924295 -0.971723 -1.03852
104 Ghana -1.24972 -1.35863 -1.38268 -1.22288 -1.05022
105 Madagaskar -1.20383 -1.20019 -1.18539 -1.11331 -1.08764
106 Aserbaidschan -0.36504 -0.595619 -0.769416 -0.981761 -1.08907
107 Äthiopien -0.93631 -1.1606 -0.937456 -1.05951 -1.14921
108 Kongo, Demokratische Republik -1.1042 -1.16123 -1.34175 -1.35887 -1.17151
109 Tansania -1.14524 -1.19819 -1.17276 -1.19109 -1.17687
110 Kambodscha -1.02579 -1.14921 -1.17042 -1.20287 -1.2005
111 Birma -1.23973 -1.3014 -1.23916 -1.24742 -1.20659
112 Mosambik -1.20899 -1.34734 -1.1731 -1.2241 -1.27774
113 Cote d'Ivoire -1.23738 -1.27946 -1.2167 -1.31008 -1.29502
114 Jemen -1.44892 -1.56273 -1.54465 -1.51778 -1.39501
115 Guinea -1.59046 -1.3383 -1.23361 -1.22219 -1.53055
116 Kamerun -1.45477 -1.55106 -1.81234 -1.80901 -1.62851
117 Mauretanien -0.976701 -1.53823 -1.22737 -1.73472 -1.82521
118 Kongo, Republik der -1.35403 -1.41438 -1.56017 -1.6858 -1.82685
119 Angola -2.06924 -0.705732 -0.787959 -0.798225 -1.91304
120 Nigeria -2.05963 -2.40836 -2.32188 -2.1849 -2.06466
121 Sudan -1.5408 -1.57514 -1.82539 -1.99046 -2.07678