The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Land 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002
1 Japan 2.48434 2.51283 2.53454 2.52662 2.61165
2 Deutschland 2.20218 2.26714 2.26168 2.23828 2.2377
3 Schweiz 2.20498 2.20565 2.18502 2.24412 2.19269
4 Schweden 1.96355 1.9692 1.97269 1.98924 2.0381
5 Vereinigtes Königreich 1.83921 1.95509 1.97386 1.9704 1.99456
6 Vereinigte Staaten 1.81703 1.85634 1.86251 1.85189 1.87944
7 Finnland 1.89548 1.89805 1.85628 1.85446 1.86151
8 Österreich 1.84365 1.80792 1.79399 1.73102 1.72614
9 Singapur 1.09548 1.32845 1.55217 1.51534 1.62663
10 Frankreich 1.54483 1.56021 1.58127 1.58792 1.60699
11 Tschechische Republik 1.43721 1.48955 1.5289 1.52518 1.56631
12 Irland 1.49523 1.39659 1.44934 1.45836 1.55977
13 Dänemark 1.49822 1.58105 1.58813 1.56798 1.54904
14 Italien 1.47994 1.49433 1.48962 1.52985 1.48036
15 Slowenien 1.306 1.34999 1.39814 1.45239 1.42297
16 Belgien 1.48359 1.45589 1.44647 1.40065 1.37079
17 Südkorea 1.03141 1.10914 1.19698 1.23895 1.29563
18 Slowakei 1.2153 1.20047 1.24483 1.2636 1.23843
19 Niederlande 1.2877 1.27953 1.31034 1.23203 1.15767
20 Spanien 1.09293 1.05449 1.10231 1.14719 1.15073
21 Israel 1.14711 1.15445 1.22578 1.19289 1.10809
22 Ungarn 0.876291 0.780762 0.866768 0.992979 1.06683
23 Mexiko 0.698187 0.78642 0.948962 0.905129 0.958907
24 Polen 0.830855 0.814231 0.902565 0.939812 0.941757
25 Kanada 0.933069 0.853475 0.882912 0.864428 0.89244
26 Malaysia 0.440481 0.471149 0.64597 0.615196 0.734542
27 Weißrussland 0.645948 0.607993 0.558912 0.842052 0.722964
28 Norwegen 0.928205 0.840261 0.771729 0.712675 0.66816
29 Kroatien 0.677189 0.632074 0.665432 0.631126 0.638124
30 Hongkong 0.326658 0.341021 0.466488 0.617995 0.588883
31 Portugal 0.461456 0.448254 0.54534 0.554852 0.539252
32 Russland 0.593549 0.600178 0.556283 0.580501 0.515668
33 Estland 0.547724 0.474429 0.502223 0.584589 0.498964
34 Ukraine 0.647333 0.562931 0.484355 0.458828 0.475434
35 Rumänien 0.491754 0.464376 0.474142 0.441733 0.459015
36 Brasilien 0.63263 0.63173 0.602188 0.512734 0.450486
37 Thailand 0.14429 0.249545 0.371248 0.393173 0.435905
38 China 0.254555 0.233022 0.307929 0.378568 0.41801
39 Bulgarien 0.483749 0.450126 0.442311 0.344109 0.384387
40 Bosnien und Herzegowina 0.528119 0.456929 0.358552 0.302574 0.242517
41 Indien 0.118969 0.196844 0.210091 0.285222 0.216505
42 Neuseeland 0.359696 0.291932 0.27661 0.255177 0.192239
43 Griechenland 0.179631 0.146522 0.159244 0.205573 0.190595
44 Lettland 0.265352 0.314476 0.181396 0.174325 0.180464
45 Kolumbien -0.033018 0.065018 0.130317 0.154886 0.165579
46 Litauen 0.328792 0.30198 0.279794 0.192432 0.161984
47 Georgia 0.172483 0.238245 0.211482 0.217142 0.138305
48 Costa Rica -0.143079 -0.11122 -0.046819 -0.057797 0.102606
49 Trinidad und Tobago 0.1096 0.080107 -0.013316 0.058879 0.096957
50 Panama 0.022614 0.033458 0.107499 0.131178 0.081602
51 Türkei 0.065294 0.08533 0.096253 0.103766 0.05963
52 Südafrika 0.233557 0.266418 0.195963 0.102827 0.055371
53 Uruguay 0.192193 0.150169 0.151318 0.11815 0.023785
54 Libanon 0.002854 -0.105666 0.009897 0.081991 0.013337
55 Indonesien -0.237833 -0.178447 -0.118525 -0.006918 -0.011234
56 Albanien -0.43934 -0.42106 -0.276055 -0.047386 -0.01742
57 Moldawien 0.087567 -0.067187 -0.079771 -0.058476 -0.019165
58 Philippinen -0.29749 -0.278829 -0.051153 -0.067078 -0.025559
59 Argentinien 0.063963 0.061027 0.067484 0.065941 -0.048438
60 Saudi-Arabien 0.245782 0.133691 -0.104429 -0.047194 -0.054635
61 Mazedonien 0.07125 -0.023729 -0.014313 0.004857 -0.069498
62 Australien 0.052213 -0.033744 -0.031123 -0.06647 -0.073102
63 Venezuela 0.01211 0.168625 -0.020923 -0.136609 -0.07666
64 Chile -0.123718 -0.122233 -0.120653 -0.097452 -0.089827
65 El Salvador -0.014612 -0.030598 -0.077975 -0.09812 -0.125807
66 Jordan 0.156842 0.199525 0.225435 0.259856 -0.130406
67 Tunesien -0.487393 -0.371227 -0.335308 -0.176462 -0.17907
68 Kasachstan 0.133409 -0.153616 -0.260106 -0.296089 -0.213565
69 Kuwait -0.548267 -0.517091 -0.386139 -0.407039 -0.300179
70 Katar -0.67805 -0.829927 -0.566883 -0.488146 -0.309149
71 Vereinigte Arabische Emirate -0.291874 -0.306447 -0.407031 -0.447912 -0.312063
72 Guatemala -0.234772 -0.23064 -0.221969 -0.314302 -0.397476
73 Ägypten -0.51622 -0.409572 -0.367532 -0.432688 -0.40861
74 Togo -0.993679 -1.23014 -0.983632 -0.560002 -0.471307
75 Aserbaidschan 0.344791 0.14542 -0.094196 -0.582499 -0.473538
76 Peru -0.519939 -0.452241 -0.454346 -0.504695 -0.537658
77 Simbabwe -0.507259 -0.538359 -0.450373 -0.48607 -0.53834
78 Dominikanische Republik -0.558683 -0.7221 -0.55851 -0.502652 -0.541407
79 Paraguay -0.533852 -0.50479 -0.616288 -0.633126 -0.601299
80 Vietnam -0.784948 -0.765394 -0.709704 -0.633173 -0.612566
81 Sri Lanka -0.70323 -0.60947 -0.549153 -0.575275 -0.618172
82 Jamaika -0.605535 -0.673412 -0.737476 -0.616227 -0.636068
83 Kenia -0.662768 -0.601449 -0.605449 -0.513933 -0.653247
84 Namibia -0.811299 -0.753271 -0.663161
85 Marokko -0.786999 -0.717755 -0.656 -0.703032 -0.676159
86 Botswana -0.411647 -0.826433 -0.686412
87 Pakistan -0.825743 -0.799512 -0.835216 -0.809969 -0.689205
88 Usbekistan -0.129301 -0.502809 -0.620734 -0.819991 -0.701587
89 Mongolei -0.72326 -0.818503 -0.725388 -0.735884 -0.746776
90 Honduras -0.756757 -0.688814 -0.618441 -0.730843 -0.784403
91 Laos -0.57976 -0.806781 -1.05256 -0.928956 -0.789641
92 Nicaragua -0.713839 -0.793998 -0.839711 -0.75545 -0.805578
93 Algerien -0.802829 -0.741165 -0.843424 -0.906108 -0.808618
94 Bolivien -0.630502 -0.770524 -0.812611 -0.881527 -0.836185
95 Iran -0.760938 -0.816195 -0.943975 -0.875579 -0.837151
96 Ecuador -0.97281 -0.888551 -0.841814 -0.871608 -0.878596
97 Senegal -0.973323 -0.87581 -0.793548 -0.888731 -0.931708
98 Oman -0.518991 -0.615451 -0.620443 -0.947925 -0.932646
99 Äthiopien -1.34347 -1.08673 -1.09717 -0.99011 -0.933984
100 Turkmenistan -0.792971 -0.815293 -0.995334 -1.1145 -0.943435
101 Mosambik -0.642561 -0.134453 -0.308848 -0.754133 -0.949386
102 Mauretanien -1.13432 -0.758452 -0.730751 -0.797881 -0.951643
103 Sambia -0.846865 -0.960927 -0.990725 -1.10573 -0.99658
104 Bangladesch -1.08508 -1.07312 -0.997463 -0.995853 -1.03815
105 Kambodscha -1.36686 -1.22901 -1.15353 -1.04926 -1.04947
106 Syrien -1.0725 -1.05652 -1.02673 -1.04357 -1.08415
107 Kongo, Demokratische Republik -1.33985 -1.52529 -1.27315 -1.1108 -1.10486
108 Ghana -1.23054 -1.34344 -1.29443 -1.17101 -1.13735
109 Cote d'Ivoire -1.26317 -1.30078 -1.156 -1.08336 -1.14553
110 Madagaskar -1.159 -1.1058 -1.16221 -1.08675 -1.15522
111 Birma -1.24911 -1.15924 -1.30999 -1.29669 -1.18614
112 Gabun -1.55086 -1.14666 -1.18934 -0.920493 -1.26716
113 Tansania -1.29562 -1.15902 -1.27194 -1.23882 -1.27368
114 Kongo, Republik der -1.24502 -1.45647 -1.42348 -1.25988 -1.30159
115 Sudan -1.21251 -1.15646 -1.44871 -1.48732 -1.4476
116 Jemen -1.50222 -1.60913 -1.51089 -1.57309 -1.48922
117 Kamerun -1.83434 -1.81816 -1.77589 -1.76353 -1.53014
118 Guinea -1.76458 -1.80391 -1.70685 -1.76285 -1.72383
119 Nigeria -2.10267 -2.0675 -2.02891 -1.99444 -1.91639
120 Angola -1.60166 -1.61325 -1.67367 -1.71443 -2.04759