The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Land 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
1 Japan 2.41259 2.54183 2.55927 2.62482 2.53902
2 Deutschland 2.28213 2.29872 2.30351 2.33549 2.25612
3 Schweiz 2.28569 2.24492 2.26769 2.2797 2.22311
4 Schweden 2.22944 2.21793 2.14061 2.15152 2.10031
5 Österreich 2.0734 2.12007 2.07826 2.03268 1.91867
6 Finnland 1.89635 1.9172 1.87757 1.93772 1.90875
7 Vereinigte Staaten 1.73991 1.82759 1.77051 1.83305 1.82767
8 Vereinigtes Königreich 1.90245 1.8913 1.81848 1.80903 1.82057
9 Frankreich 1.72926 1.71064 1.69969 1.60763 1.58323
10 Italien 1.73817 1.73744 1.68699 1.63958 1.55468
11 Dänemark 1.72646 1.77819 1.59706 1.52388 1.51091
12 Belgien 1.53536 1.50225 1.50236 1.43024 1.46882
13 Tschechische Republik 1.33772 1.39329 1.4509 1.42569 1.40372
14 Irland 1.43868 1.41344 1.31883 1.34091 1.37233
15 Slowenien 1.38116 1.39101 1.42703 1.3489 1.34636
16 Niederlande 1.34249 1.38627 1.31958 1.33851 1.28338
17 Slowakei 1.20247 1.23843 1.26368 1.21663 1.23372
18 Spanien 1.25191 1.22672 1.26353 1.19306 1.17464
19 Südkorea 0.821888 0.855669 0.9454 1.02663 1.14944
20 Israel 1.23457 1.22134 1.11366 1.07941 1.11492
21 Singapur 0.857566 0.940113 1.0629 1.08779 0.983781
22 Ungarn 0.856917 0.929671 1.00057 0.916166 0.92667
23 Kanada 0.652211 0.819512 0.856119 0.891053 0.842988
24 Norwegen 0.855982 0.836537 0.755938 0.761752 0.829814
25 Polen 0.550205 0.600638 0.659829 0.752045 0.801098
26 Mexiko 0.807204 0.826065 0.785075 0.713387 0.742549
27 Kroatien 0.889459 0.818057 0.824962 0.74655 0.727172
28 Brasilien 0.471776 0.512414 0.558738 0.529039 0.609912
29 Ukraine 0.127406 0.122931 0.062267 0.568178 0.5933
30 Estland 0.217702 0.256368 0.457924 0.545415 0.514904
31 Bulgarien 0.409459 0.364839 0.323871 0.34916 0.501917
32 Bosnien und Herzegowina 0.760914 0.673995 0.635623 0.580926 0.492681
33 Hongkong 0.613528 0.527659 0.594131 0.471498 0.489159
34 Weißrussland 0.472178 0.378847 0.477808 0.607991 0.471432
35 Russland 0.057938 0.061145 0.148674 0.297075 0.469322
36 Rumänien 0.55807 0.426141 0.469295 0.48008 0.467421
37 Malaysia 0.115417 0.02807 0.258514 0.330865 0.454003
38 Aserbaidschan -0.133873 -0.184645 -0.220812 0.295336 0.440148
39 Portugal 0.479471 0.365271 0.407458 0.403863 0.420509
40 Neuseeland 0.369015 0.424029 0.44124 0.33429 0.34167
41 China 0.170488 0.089156 0.234956 0.221438 0.328308
42 Litauen 0.159148 0.07006 0.063567 0.262575 0.282998
43 Südafrika 0.024123 0.113564 0.108519 0.172478 0.252567
44 Lettland -0.043451 -0.149621 0.046373 0.247579 0.24158
45 Georgia -0.039227 -0.014192 0.458729 0.37478 0.20617
46 Uruguay 0.137513 0.287779 0.317795 0.281436 0.186327
47 Moldawien 0.542856 0.360477 0.284536 0.209032 0.180126
48 Kasachstan -0.150128 -0.170424 0.059747 0.320195 0.170617
49 Thailand 0.140791 0.114266 0.134664 0.08527 0.170387
50 Griechenland 0.099136 -0.006531 0.006074 0.029853 0.151935
51 Mazedonien 0.402287 0.237408 0.251441 0.167876 0.132217
52 Indien 0.025898 -0.024145 0.066093 0.034912 0.101682
53 Türkei 0.092905 0.035269 0.102971 0.003711 0.099291
54 Jordan -0.012239 0.002117 -0.026579 -0.028269 0.060741
55 Libanon 0.096162 0.126785 0.055535 -0.042066 0.014512
56 Argentinien -0.010048 -0.02758 0.010787 -0.01855 0.012858
57 Trinidad und Tobago 0.280493 0.224247 -0.019194 0.049676 0.01063
58 Kolumbien -0.092689 -0.137058 -0.057388 -0.052715 0.003091
59 Australien -0.038421 -0.009273 0.04147 0.027905 -0.00787
60 Panama 0.139468 0.124251 0.091303 -0.035657 -0.014804
61 El Salvador 0.240982 0.148981 -0.018033 -0.191735 -0.111639
62 Costa Rica -0.039951 -0.155692 -0.202471 -0.259614 -0.11906
63 Venezuela -0.328245 -0.187383 -0.084909 -0.082202 -0.131131
64 Saudi-Arabien -0.241864 0.154833 0.042888 -0.004363 -0.142044
65 Guatemala -0.106833 -0.040386 -0.006738 -0.09217 -0.183695
66 Philippinen -0.146981 -0.108895 -0.119353 -0.264709 -0.193581
67 Chile -0.365605 -0.296188 -0.197503 -0.236143 -0.22503
68 Vereinigte Arabische Emirate -0.458894 -0.422395 -0.350496 -0.41129 -0.242739
69 Usbekistan -0.36545 -0.577566 -0.695181 -0.329384 -0.257701
70 Indonesien -0.506392 -0.489321 -0.366439 -0.386413 -0.263329
71 Simbabwe -0.633409 -0.453192 -0.294163 -0.243137 -0.366698
72 Albanien -0.195093 -0.179171 -0.286801 -0.377064 -0.404282
73 Dominikanische Republik -0.507464 -0.598513 -0.496314 -0.469361 -0.453478
74 Peru -0.411949 -0.52763 -0.431251 -0.425053 -0.453811
75 Kuwait -0.37915 -0.534725 -0.907519 -0.637936 -0.456562
76 Tunesien -0.047817 -0.13953 -0.149132 -0.454045 -0.521211
77 Ägypten -0.374028 -0.403994 -0.446871 -0.46767 -0.535714
78 Mosambik -0.153745 -0.26666 -0.45673 -0.831413 -0.569856
79 Turkmenistan -0.83731 -0.920734 -0.737921 -0.795773 -0.613978
80 Laos -0.781282 -0.703118 -0.817567 -0.54968 -0.647999
81 Nicaragua -0.365774 -0.351296 -0.611364 -0.759552 -0.658495
82 Kenia -0.960591 -0.798098 -0.61515 -0.555286 -0.667525
83 Mongolei -0.293334 -0.451942 -0.540687 -0.635697 -0.671654
84 Jamaika -0.394466 -0.569588 -0.64307 -0.740573 -0.679477
85 Paraguay -0.961847 -0.804891 -0.612841 -0.645988 -0.682574
86 Oman -0.732341 -0.40115 -0.67748 -0.498061 -0.685378
87 Honduras -0.581544 -0.603182 -0.647264 -0.716076 -0.695074
88 Katar -0.618398 -0.322743 -0.619172 -0.606565 -0.709645
89 Marokko -0.504796 -0.668407 -0.618859 -0.768595 -0.720285
90 Iran -1.32054 -1.15496 -0.972758 -0.854963 -0.731991
91 Bolivien -0.930338 -0.871765 -0.784781 -0.670547 -0.761067
92 Sri Lanka -0.474121 -0.655767 -0.681331 -0.818788 -0.782064
93 Algerien -0.770482 -0.635657 -0.787497 -0.72511 -0.814718
94 Pakistan -0.70854 -0.817542 -0.79391 -0.831704 -0.81523
95 Senegal -0.92972 -1.09304 -0.794811 -1.14286 -0.839209
96 Vietnam -1.04231 -1.04169 -0.928968 -0.885671 -0.841634
97 Sambia -0.98827 -1.06644 -0.891487 -0.874625 -0.95923
98 Sudan -1.00416 -0.884069 -0.919266 -0.97249 -0.996098
99 Ecuador -0.955749 -0.968503 -1.0181 -1.06839 -1.01785
100 Syrien -0.92472 -0.734558 -0.91366 -1.08399 -1.05905
101 Kambodscha -1.01317 -1.02126 -0.985304 -0.931056 -1.05982
102 Bangladesch -0.840842 -0.921693 -0.918699 -1.06387 -1.06811
103 Togo -0.75393 -1.28427 -1.377 -1.31135 -1.12366
104 Madagaskar -1.15521 -1.08774 -1.0196 -1.14395 -1.12751
105 Mauretanien -1.18484 -1.14335 -1.22374 -1.32609 -1.13999
106 Tansania -1.21508 -1.13622 -1.26575 -1.31053 -1.21963
107 Birma -1.28022 -1.19653 -1.25906 -1.25981 -1.2446
108 Jemen -0.654439 -0.585367 -0.990987 -1.33012 -1.25966
109 Ghana -1.57914 -1.66955 -1.64302 -1.36653 -1.27141
110 Kongo, Republik der -1.45875 -1.52143 -1.41008 -0.845544 -1.29766
111 Äthiopien -0.916323 -0.729946 -1.02858 -1.20396 -1.33563
112 Cote d'Ivoire -1.69313 -1.56816 -1.53247 -1.2875 -1.37382
113 Kongo, Demokratische Republik -1.43311 -1.38968 -1.32594 -1.32809 -1.38505
114 Gabun -1.46737 -1.60925 -1.34952 -1.25007 -1.5865
115 Guinea -1.28595 -1.216 -1.27707 -1.34948 -1.64311
116 Kamerun -1.95829 -1.86519 -1.70179 -1.6158 -1.73434
117 Angola -1.46963 -1.26224 -1.70503 -1.75814 -1.79175
118 Nigeria -2.01377 -2.08403 -2.08757 -2.10242 -2.15015