The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Land 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987
1 Japan 1.85998 2.15818 2.2608 2.32645 2.39976
2 Deutschland 1.98972 2.04753 2.13019 2.13913 2.16696
3 Schweiz 1.83181 1.97263 2.0112 2.04334 2.1349
4 Schweden 1.88134 1.91398 2.0021 2.02929 2.06501
5 Österreich 1.79615 1.77997 1.88765 1.81925 1.89238
6 Vereinigtes Königreich 1.81516 1.87932 1.91522 1.86948 1.84502
7 Italien 1.65406 1.67749 1.78471 1.71372 1.73112
8 Frankreich 1.64592 1.65194 1.75725 1.71191 1.69556
9 Finnland 1.47076 1.44496 1.58759 1.57979 1.69034
10 Vereinigte Staaten 1.45447 1.60668 1.65658 1.68473 1.62452
11 Dänemark 1.37149 1.39044 1.50081 1.48869 1.50483
12 Belgien 1.39186 1.33047 1.39638 1.45513 1.47377
13 Irland 1.19683 1.30511 1.34516 1.34901 1.34749
14 Niederlande 1.0928 1.10124 1.22685 1.25089 1.23651
15 Israel 1.13583 1.16666 1.24422 1.18827 1.17349
16 Spanien 1.12307 1.12951 1.22884 1.11757 1.14212
17 Norwegen 0.91962 0.855352 0.876663 0.866243 0.955728
18 Hongkong 0.922926 1.0832 0.99998 0.950709 0.942748
19 Südkorea 0.870192 0.925091 0.938733 0.903033 0.919086
20 Polen 0.935998 0.70727 0.669572 0.707914 0.803996
21 Rumänien 0.69736 0.696714 0.764502 0.780271 0.758278
22 Ungarn 0.822882 0.755505 0.782787 0.690656 0.739834
23 Portugal 0.894749 0.786569 0.850207 0.759677 0.725108
24 Kanada 0.995635 0.767403 0.714533 0.702436 0.712579
25 Mexiko 0.350078 0.392398 0.41919 0.465516 0.649492
26 Singapur 0.345051 0.636899 0.516443 0.703919 0.623209
27 Bulgarien 0.835249 0.674233 0.620417 0.561423 0.579827
28 El Salvador 0.345506 0.148986 -0.559493 0.294898 0.472801
29 Jordan 0.797023 0.838695 0.768842 0.518866 0.461162
30 Libanon 0.600643 0.593993 0.47897 0.557421 0.460734
31 Neuseeland 0.39262 0.488338 0.492142 0.529792 0.417875
32 Uruguay 0.288617 0.349433 0.435058 0.398713 0.404771
33 Brasilien 0.196999 0.375735 0.267288 0.345727 0.369739
34 Katar -0.091036 0.05032 0.370036 0.507998 0.329535
35 Kambodscha 0.93646 0.618817 0.565503 0.645039 0.322833
36 Griechenland 0.415651 0.382953 0.315273 0.279589 0.289679
37 Türkei 0.422683 0.18852 0.14437 0.118645 0.219343
38 Indien 0.009795 0.231607 0.209181 0.200489 0.199895
39 Jemen 0.318063 0.251636 0.062197 0.141871
40 China 0.282005 0.27951 0.23883 0.147123 0.134055
41 Tunesien 0.092105 0.071816 0.076952 0.064443 0.128234
42 Argentinien 0.100525 0.089542 0.02977 0.02127 0.064141
43 Malaysia -0.158291 0.22436 0.135335 0.023944 -0.013715
44 Mosambik -0.42297 -0.411569 -0.315261 -0.19087 -0.051954
45 Trinidad und Tobago -0.113493 -0.194203 -0.226116 0.094595 -0.077639
46 Australien -0.10869 -0.097552 0.024368 -0.079455 -0.085689
47 Dominikanische Republik -0.179084 -0.332858 -0.178757 -0.151004 -0.110589
48 Vereinigte Arabische Emirate -0.706481 -0.476698 -0.392549 -0.085901 -0.11452
49 Costa Rica 0.151419 0.122502 -0.05328 -0.158359 -0.123305
50 Guatemala 0.186049 0.072258 -0.324174 -0.110733 -0.124289
51 Venezuela -0.87396 -0.671298 -0.348603 -0.224144 -0.142738
52 Panama 0.315114 0.489499 0.102947 0.097218 -0.148231
53 Thailand -0.322116 -0.021323 -0.053782 -0.196221 -0.165517
54 Kuwait 0.16749 -0.216007 -0.617154 0.10631 -0.187616
55 Kolumbien 0.198326 0.256464 0.059858 -0.04428 -0.190655
56 Saudi-Arabien -0.392052 -0.746958 -1.2505 -0.779577 -0.22444
57 Albanien 0.203431 -0.040355 -0.226584 -0.336359 -0.229183
58 Nicaragua -0.193166 -0.632906 -1.08428 -0.512901 -0.238517
59 Südafrika -0.113556 -0.195382 -0.188012 -0.100059 -0.254265
60 Philippinen -0.202809 -0.149925 -0.214845 -0.33671 -0.327704
61 Marokko -0.156858 -0.139479 -0.165684 -0.197346 -0.334159
62 Jamaika -0.132885 -0.006167 0.005884 -0.059726 -0.340469
63 Mongolei -0.148033 -0.268388 -0.318123 -0.48517 -0.345683
64 Peru -0.40929 -0.420794 -0.388779 -0.293198 -0.380444
65 Pakistan -0.159002 -0.10831 -0.215134 -0.28839 -0.383374
66 Laos -0.501314 -0.295409 -0.041721 -0.29169 -0.400541
67 Sambia -0.759663 -0.838919 -0.609474 -0.517998 -0.416354
68 Syrien -0.30833 -0.229593 -0.357534 -0.282584 -0.41874
69 Chile -0.170715 -0.322281 -0.240817 -0.27313 -0.470722
70 Ägypten -0.404609 -0.492947 -0.458009 -0.370879 -0.47398
71 Bangladesch -0.727512 -0.681064 -0.752768 -0.649575 -0.561619
72 Honduras -0.626635 -0.608498 -0.409386 -0.678372 -0.616688
73 Sri Lanka -0.670908 -0.527826 -0.558963 -0.449493 -0.630882
74 Simbabwe -0.738731 -0.751496 -0.69842 -0.662716 -0.638385
75 Senegal -0.158381 -0.622272 -0.521592 -0.609679 -0.710488
76 Algerien -1.18598 -1.18261 -1.10051 -1.22432 -0.787639
77 Paraguay -0.69011 -0.86529 -0.795192 -0.857056 -0.798989
78 Oman 0.78725 0.573659 -0.116269 -0.861732 -0.812367
79 Äthiopien -0.758394 -0.70973 -0.775537 -0.969597 -0.812948
80 Kenia -0.897006 -0.88951 -0.852445 -0.921978 -0.858609
81 Bolivien -0.819953 -1.11108 -0.842486 -0.942779 -0.895863
82 Sudan -1.08322 -1.11237 -0.836808 -1.08179 -0.933388
83 Birma -0.766736 -0.826776 -0.715804 -0.811849 -0.984295
84 Vietnam -0.742823 -0.783679 -0.726897 -0.771785 -0.984498
85 Mauretanien -1.38224 -1.37713 -1.04673 -0.939791 -0.993936
86 Tansania -1.14815 -1.05332 -0.890427 -0.922606 -1.01029
87 Indonesien -1.40417 -1.30602 -1.27708 -1.19011 -1.11041
88 Ghana -1.09926 -1.22104 -0.999115 -0.99126 -1.16508
89 Ecuador -0.878952 -0.897574 -1.10442 -1.2186 -1.20318
90 Angola -2.01443 -1.94971 -1.78521 -1.822 -1.26181
91 Madagaskar -1.36143 -1.27543 -1.24666 -1.39296 -1.29
92 Iran -1.27293 -1.12454 -1.09122 -1.23982 -1.33492
93 Togo -1.63595 -1.50714 -1.58361 -1.37642 -1.40066
94 Kongo, Demokratische Republik -1.5312 -1.34137 -1.24149 -1.30384 -1.45864
95 Gabun -1.56763 -1.49385 -1.1978 -1.39269 -1.51237
96 Cote d'Ivoire -0.930862 -1.03352 -0.966269 -1.40121 -1.51558
97 Kongo, Republik der -1.69718 -1.68953 -1.57239 -1.59555 -1.56447
98 Nigeria -2.03079 -2.08999 -2.07325 -2.00898 -1.73325
99 Kamerun -1.15604 -1.20592 -1.73297 -1.74781 -1.76979
100 Guinea -2.18468 -2.05419 -1.72045 -1.46967 -1.82425