The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Land 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982
1 Deutschland 1.98571 2.13579 2.0861 2.01825 1.98445
2 Schweden 1.91341 1.95309 1.92992 1.93062 1.89183
3 Vereinigtes Königreich 1.79062 1.84999 1.85741 1.8527 1.82493
4 Japan 1.83684 1.94395 1.88833 1.83755 1.81597
5 Schweiz 1.813 1.99453 2.00572 1.92464 1.79668
6 Österreich 1.81273 1.93101 1.88666 1.84022 1.79374
7 Frankreich 1.62775 1.68432 1.6675 1.61752 1.64914
8 Italien 1.6234 1.69198 1.64847 1.62263 1.64022
9 Vereinigte Staaten 1.44382 1.50259 1.5004 1.51882 1.46216
10 Finnland 1.34838 1.35975 1.46544 1.36337 1.43566
11 Belgien 1.39968 1.42368 1.4946 1.49442 1.43398
12 Dänemark 1.32044 1.34456 1.36878 1.35121 1.36344
13 Irland 1.13131 1.1536 1.21233 1.27098 1.23034
14 Niederlande 1.07978 1.16236 1.14066 1.15826 1.11056
15 Spanien 1.00921 1.05235 1.06151 1.04731 1.08526
16 Israel 0.856037 0.781789 0.841083 1.07216 1.08025
17 Polen 0.833613 0.885866 0.983217 1.02368 1.01759
18 Norwegen 1.13072 1.06658 1.02257 0.966306 0.999488
19 Kambodscha 0.418704 0.686277 0.953869 1.1079 0.967635
20 Ungarn 0.911598 0.944537 0.927901 0.950599 0.961064
21 Portugal 0.766385 0.862483 0.84277 0.841855 0.910184
22 Kanada 0.846039 0.833572 0.857068 0.94163 0.905164
23 Südkorea 0.767752 0.819243 0.85489 0.902423 0.885554
24 Hongkong 0.911861 0.928507 0.899815 0.830525 0.837076
25 Jordan 1.10643 1.0003 0.90679 0.758856 0.820758
26 Rumänien 0.703638 0.696607 0.607707 0.648055 0.722751
27 Bulgarien 0.665983 0.675666 0.633252 0.681308 0.708309
28 Libanon 0.932121 0.67831 0.581226 0.587277 0.666476
29 Neuseeland 0.290817 0.293272 0.287538 0.417413 0.411588
30 Panama 0.190321 0.133036 0.225306 0.37013 0.390468
31 Mexiko 0.600371 0.533398 0.448728 0.483624 0.37141
32 El Salvador 0.331769 0.286214 0.192411 0.293248 0.366672
33 Griechenland 0.447339 0.272871 0.141741 0.317374 0.354312
34 Albanien 0.027023 -0.074055 0.420676 0.242285 0.347362
35 Uruguay 0.276794 0.33441 0.34675 0.308764 0.336185
36 China 0.291819 0.299534 0.320765 0.320562 0.313648
37 Brasilien -0.181274 -0.106942 0.067672 0.117213 0.286643
38 Singapur 0.274431 0.169053 0.160756 0.216724 0.277628
39 Türkei -0.113783 -0.141234 -0.088335 0.064652 0.267097
40 Indien 0.272973 0.25889 0.27281 0.282423 0.265235
41 Guatemala 0.029384 0.079735 0.103098 0.171701 0.242111
42 Costa Rica 0.30829 0.354579 0.359232 0.284733 0.214813
43 Kolumbien -0.191699 -0.15778 -0.220389 -0.021815 0.198478
44 Kuwait 0.66765 0.034041 0.110441 0.150772 0.191197
45 Tunesien -0.263188 -0.163192 -0.078853 -0.044769 0.097075
46 Australien -0.038578 -0.044982 -0.094969 -0.147273 -0.007137
47 Laos -0.116997 -0.110284 0.013824 0.088764 -0.015012
48 Argentinien 0.100627 -0.030212 -0.100055 -0.088912 -0.04017
49 Jamaika 0.111522 -0.108446 -0.078034 -0.013388 -0.066094
50 Pakistan 0.099332 0.031184 -0.115404 -0.13179 -0.073382
51 Südafrika -0.225034 -0.149801 -0.085272 -0.082639 -0.084774
52 Syrien 0.720633 0.165746 -0.402598 -0.359806 -0.1311
53 Marokko -0.153656 -0.155585 -0.167354 -0.167639 -0.136266
54 Philippinen -0.145795 -0.212291 -0.140206 -0.153217 -0.13915
55 Mongolei 0.6664 0.517489 0.186925 0.175424 -0.142225
56 Senegal -0.564835 -0.521327 -0.502146 -0.22909 -0.164245
57 Thailand -0.269411 -0.199437 -0.178685 -0.152445 -0.174918
58 Nicaragua -0.164669 -0.105189 -0.110342 -0.232164 -0.194655
59 Trinidad und Tobago -0.179923 -0.395649 -0.693578 -0.282267 -0.195771
60 Chile -0.192636 -0.300832 -0.231075 -0.201121 -0.206138
61 Dominikanische Republik -0.055693 -0.15358 -0.198638 -0.241778 -0.242779
62 Katar -0.796915 0.112702 0.307791 -0.195983 -0.301367
63 Malaysia -0.195103 -0.304213 -0.364096 -0.39127 -0.301706
64 Peru -0.600074 -0.220861 -0.165561 -0.285008 -0.38563
65 Simbabwe 0.14211 0.352027 -0.514413 -0.60849 -0.395937
66 Honduras -0.398216 -0.579062 -0.525357 -0.524518 -0.423259
67 Mosambik -0.918985 -0.484657 -0.580247 -0.623075 -0.47178
68 Vereinigte Arabische Emirate 0.216543 -0.105964 0.171413 -0.075462 -0.47584
69 Kenia -0.262464 -0.35219 -0.319034 -0.389878 -0.490322
70 Ägypten -0.00279 -0.154764 -0.377018 -0.558607 -0.537723
71 Vietnam -0.203335 -0.438961 -0.322191 -0.349642 -0.611483
72 Bangladesch -0.546402 -0.581606 -0.473513 -0.58621 -0.629682
73 Sri Lanka -0.807947 -0.61599 -0.585217 -0.603583 -0.640165
74 Ecuador -1.32066 -1.11174 -0.644096 -0.780416 -0.691914
75 Birma -0.882072 -0.830871 -0.807171 -0.667566 -0.694097
76 Sambia -0.85791 -0.780084 -0.732815 -0.51962 -0.704497
77 Äthiopien -1.07115 -1.19928 -1.17153 -1.05514 -0.7192
78 Oman -0.509484 -0.612259 -0.124307 -0.036912 -0.719467
79 Tansania -1.22402 -1.11669 -0.88241 -0.881603 -0.793757
80 Paraguay -0.67204 -0.767292 -0.914223 -0.900972 -0.857857
81 Bolivien -0.851629 -1.14398 -0.904911 -1.03484 -0.895974
82 Mauretanien -1.10609 -1.39294 -1.24662 -1.25527 -0.934538
83 Venezuela -1.08701 -1.04601 -1.36645 -1.35676 -1.04203
84 Sudan -1.29886 -1.19936 -1.25879 -1.14672 -1.06056
85 Algerien -0.939733 -0.844654 -0.754751 -1.0883 -1.11657
86 Cote d'Ivoire -1.18251 -1.04431 -1.08692 -1.02644 -1.16171
87 Iran -1.23625 -1.31155 -1.38935 -1.11731 -1.19522
88 Madagaskar -1.28706 -1.21443 -1.10889 -0.979658 -1.25712
89 Kamerun -1.25489 -1.16546 -1.34147 -1.50593 -1.30103
90 Ghana -1.19743 -1.19881 -1.07721 -1.16804 -1.40758
91 Kongo, Demokratische Republik -1.49539 -1.57941 -1.49485
92 Gabun -1.31778 -1.39642 -1.37809 -1.48457 -1.5229
93 Togo -1.19283 -1.0105 -1.31044 -1.26752 -1.57902
94 Indonesien -1.36404 -1.58526 -1.66024 -1.64905 -1.59288
95 Kongo, Republik der -1.24883 -1.13528 -1.19202 -1.66323 -1.67642
96 Guinea -1.96201 -2.18704 -1.76414 -1.69511 -1.74614
97 Angola -1.43599 -1.4835 -1.43557 -1.70915 -1.76865
98 Nigeria -2.31682 -2.2981 -2.36218 -1.97928 -2.14511
99 Saudi-Arabien -2.29486 -1.71692 -2.1413 -2.17624 -2.17477