The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Land 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972
1 Deutschland 2.29043 2.28258 2.30919 2.24741 2.29945
2 Schweiz 2.1625 2.09088 2.13549 2.01508 2.04004
3 Vereinigtes Königreich 2.0158 2.03973 2.0578 2.03752 2.03438
4 Schweden 2.05498 1.97973 1.98691 1.91456 2.03225
5 Japan 1.92797 1.94451 1.97001 1.93272 1.98772
6 Österreich 1.98078 1.92701 1.99157 1.96936 1.94613
7 Italien 1.81562 1.80442 1.84658 1.81948 1.8205
8 Vereinigte Staaten 1.80736 1.82113 1.75874 1.69342 1.71798
9 Frankreich 1.75071 1.73018 1.73046 1.69848 1.66878
10 Belgien 1.53657 1.52145 1.46409 1.48649 1.47614
11 Finnland 1.38039 1.45759 1.42408 1.35226 1.37407
12 Dänemark 1.30555 1.32305 1.38827 1.35966 1.37284
13 Hongkong 1.28635 1.26272 1.28574 1.22027 1.24999
14 Niederlande 1.30488 1.28544 1.28366 1.24771 1.24832
15 Norwegen 1.38974 1.38927 1.31026 1.24371 1.23394
16 Ungarn 1.10248 1.02343 1.01005 1.01019 0.977467
17 Irland 0.948167 0.879141 0.967741 1.00326 0.966161
18 Simbabwe 0.922071 1.08494 1.15234 1.1095 0.959187
19 Spanien 0.602475 0.805464 0.864415 0.916294 0.921629
20 Portugal 0.895702 0.946908 0.940221 0.947728 0.897661
21 Polen 0.882682 0.893808 0.833854 0.875648 0.844756
22 Rumänien 0.464902 0.633043 0.606859 0.697563 0.740619
23 Kanada 0.803205 0.829068 0.671882 0.709441 0.723165
24 Israel 0.627411 0.712611 0.617849 0.64909 0.692241
25 El Salvador 0.579651 0.547753 0.565368 0.554931 0.678434
26 Libanon 0.490028 0.533752 0.647574 0.599343 0.631402
27 Südkorea 0.708068 0.732955 0.621873 0.627842 0.626045
28 Katar -1.61823 -0.645333 -0.07853 0.046028 0.609986
29 Bulgarien 0.486855 0.530517 0.514371 0.588835 0.589544
30 Costa Rica 0.659682 0.543581 0.585106 0.474371 0.577735
31 Panama 0.900246 0.885879 0.933754 0.606507 0.543671
32 China 0.564777 0.541641 0.56752 0.525819 0.514375
33 Trinidad und Tobago 0.019173 0.136406 0.01314 0.351749 0.44187
34 Neuseeland 0.116224 0.122129 0.136762 0.22548 0.353045
35 Mexiko 0.036176 0.113615 0.256898 0.348713 0.319915
36 Jordan 0.495193 0.596004 0.597902 0.689381 0.319037
37 Uruguay 0.335919 0.180582 0.261768 0.298024 0.271904
38 Guatemala 0.205069 0.351906 0.321518 0.314459 0.240257
39 Griechenland 0.172181 0.117929 0.263971 0.314837 0.221012
40 Singapur 0.256625 0.131842 0.063316 0.010946 0.207166
41 Nicaragua 0.080425 0.111926 0.237144 0.158069 0.168931
42 Indien -0.069321 0.052822 0.146517 0.151577 0.111218
43 Albanien 0.056063 0.061086 -0.024968 0.089795 0.09419
44 Ägypten -0.152495 -0.214962 -0.136492 -0.026385 0.084044
45 Chile -0.20273 -0.017258 -0.071417 0.013151 0.065106
46 Australien 0.268314 0.135157 0.068696 0.057807 0.043605
47 Argentinien -0.2747 -0.248754 -0.139189 -0.117285 -0.021875
48 Kolumbien -0.168593 -0.360003 -0.193596 -0.118563 -0.088109
49 Marokko -0.387013 -0.411634 -0.315138 -0.194403 -0.18728
50 Vietnam -0.015737 -0.201158 -0.021656 -0.234389 -0.195863
51 Jamaika -0.343456 -0.358714 -0.259814 -0.207051 -0.205072
52 Tunesien -0.239807 -0.084226 -0.134677 -0.214765 -0.277761
53 Südafrika -0.383453 -0.409667 -0.365206 -0.288454 -0.290437
54 Senegal -0.377609 -0.425614 -0.503889 -0.449499 -0.308306
55 Pakistan -0.367673 -0.368162 -0.231935 -0.247639 -0.317045
56 Kenia -0.731571 -0.752076 -0.574831 -0.289811 -0.374348
57 Syrien -0.255758 -0.502398 -0.433337 -0.289283 -0.387965
58 Dominikanische Republik -0.826126 -0.558 -0.688536 -0.443618 -0.40791
59 Honduras -0.197737 -0.20942 -0.177444 -0.273195 -0.409435
60 Türkei -0.864073 -0.850097 -0.545683 -0.515846 -0.467437
61 Vereinigte Arabische Emirate 1.02527 0.693872 -0.734606 -0.325083 -0.483392
62 Kuwait -1.10223 -0.991073 -0.916529 -0.707222 -0.530043
63 Togo -1.01094 -1.36065 -1.07225 -0.6516 -0.533978
64 Brasilien -0.702449 -0.565923 -0.54633 -0.614586 -0.546039
65 Philippinen -0.479011 -0.540272 -0.477216 -0.447083 -0.55777
66 Venezuela -0.394938 -0.424707 -0.687622 -0.88009 -0.572191
67 Algerien -0.469397 -0.521161 -0.492765 -0.387895 -0.581162
68 Bangladesch -0.583664
69 Paraguay -0.587674 -0.674242 -0.503316 -0.492994 -0.612634
70 Malaysia -0.439566 -0.579548 -0.678805 -0.882138 -0.719569
71 Thailand -0.870876 -0.841727 -0.826566 -0.852995 -0.778683
72 Bolivien -0.876756 -0.926964 -0.792537 -0.780383 -0.795227
73 Peru -0.697814 -0.688604 -0.907499 -0.826122 -0.795581
74 Iran -0.823465 -0.76819 -0.82755 -0.805196 -0.832824
75 Madagaskar -1.0524 -1.05855 -1.00788 -0.962487 -0.889362
76 Mosambik -0.869069 -0.821813 -0.80825 -0.795592 -0.900928
77 Laos -0.815614 -0.923599 -0.641542 -0.73136 -0.92082
78 Saudi-Arabien -0.943115 -0.62291 -0.879255 -1.01507 -0.924268
79 Mauretanien -1.01189 -0.541496 -0.604379 -0.632401 -0.934725
80 Kamerun -0.758248 -0.843236 -0.817342 -0.935888 -0.958583
81 Ghana -0.773767 -0.851496 -1.05177 -0.993839 -1.04168
82 Birma -1.06872 -1.13729 -1.1461 -1.37593 -1.05842
83 Kongo, Republik der -0.857768 -0.844418 -0.96419 -0.964024 -1.07979
84 Guinea -1.09043 -1.16134 -1.102 -0.846298 -1.08984
85 Kambodscha -0.870425 -0.922801 -1.19009 -1.07522 -1.10812
86 Ecuador -0.891331 -0.911034 -0.998564 -1.07145 -1.11334
87 Sri Lanka -1.11778 -0.908343 -0.94655 -1.0083 -1.11622
88 Oman -1.33728 -1.40809 -1.1488 -1.35187 -1.13284
89 Cote d'Ivoire -1.00629 -1.18414 -1.10706 -1.23779 -1.14784
90 Äthiopien -0.932435 -0.87046 -1.02267 -1.03374 -1.15615
91 Tansania -1.23856 -1.30574 -1.23245 -1.25281 -1.27276
92 Sambia -0.792187 -0.842796 -1.29254 -1.19932 -1.27385
93 Angola -1.23318 -1.22352 -1.20874 -1.32727 -1.28119
94 Sudan -1.18166 -1.39571 -1.30781 -1.54086 -1.3197
95 Gabun -1.24293 -1.41464 -1.24468 -1.62498 -1.3714
96 Indonesien -1.10962 -1.0897 -1.26172 -1.35609 -1.4636
97 Nigeria -1.43376 -1.6612 -1.70208 -1.86444 -2.02801